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John Brown’s War Against Slavery

Robert E. McGlone

© 2009 Cambridge University Press

Reproduced by permission of the publisher.

(Indented Style)

 

All illustrations--prints, maps, photographs--are indicated by page numbers in italics.  The name Brown, standing alone, refers to John Brown throughout.

 

Abels, Jules, 150–51

abolitionists

black, 242–43

Brown armed by, 199

Brown family as, 35, 55–56, 63, 66–67, 81, 120, 382n82

conspiracy among, 217

economic strategy, 244, 311

insurrection by, 6, 149, 243

intelligence provided by, 1

non-resistant, 241, 247, 255. See also Garrison, William Lloyd; Garrisonians

politics/political culture, 9–11, 199, 204, 223

secret, 244

See also Eastern abolitionists; Kansas (free-state); Northerners; radical abolitionists

Adair, Samuel (brother-in-law)

on defensive warfare, 169

on Kansas proslavery defeat, 383n90

as Kansas settler, 86–87

non-resistance of, 14

Osawatomie cabin, 86, 97–99

on Pottawatomie massacre, 115–18, 121–22, 127, 135

on proslavery violence, 104, 111

on Shawnee legislature, 106

Adams, Annie Brown. See Brown, Annie (daughter)

Alburtis, Ephriam, 291, 299

Allstadt, John

as hostage, 266, 268–69, 293

slaves of, 269, 271–72, 274, 279, 297

AltonIllinois, 67, 120

American Revolution, 12, 214, 242

Anderson, Jeremiah

on Douglass, 228

Harpers Ferry raid, 287, 296, 300, 302, 304–5

migration to Kansas, 252

photo, 288

Anderson, Osborne Perry, 250, 251

Andrew, John A., 223

Annoyance Associations, 87

Arny, William, 237

AtchisonKansas, 10, 78

Atlantic Monthly (periodical), 205

Avis, John, 285

Ball, Armistead, 271, 284, 298

Baltimore militia, 291, 296

Bandura, Albert, 137–39

Barber, Thomas, 101–2, 107, 117, 120

Barbour, Alfred M., 258

Bateson, Gregory, 68–69, 347–48n86

Battle of the Spurs, 211

Baylor, Robert W., 283, 291, 418n24

Beckham, Fontaine, 285, 289, 310, 421n60

Beecher, Henry Ward, 10, 179–80, 200, 337n44, 387n3

Beecher’s Bibles. See Sharps rifles

Bell, James M., 251

Bennett, James Gordon, 235

Black JackMissouri, 11, 157, 170, 212

black state constitution. See “Provisional Constitution and Ordinances”

Blakeslee, Levi, 59–60, 62, 64, 336n37

Bleeding Kansas

overview, 10–13

anarchy and murder defining, 78

Brown as revolutionary in, 70

Brown identified with, 10

Brown’s reputation and, 204

peace destroyed by, 102

popular sovereignty destroyed by, 12

religious warfare and, 178, 322

Republican Party and, 12

See also Border Ruffians; Kansas (free-state); Kansas proslavery factions; Kikapoo Rangers; Missourians

Boerly, Thomas, 283, 289

bogus legislation. See Kansas proslavery government/legislation

Border Ruffians

armed protection against, 10–11

Brown brothers’ migration to Kansas and, 209–10

Brown’s appeal for support against, 206

Brown’s militancy and, 247

elections and, 11

Frederick Brown murdered by, 158

Kansas considered safe from, 212

Pottawatomie massacre and, 77–78, 116

U.S. government and, 77–78

See also Kikapoo Rangers; Missourians

BostonSee under*it Eastern abolitionists

Botts, Lawson, 184

Branson, Jacob, 98–99, 101–12

Brown, Amelia (daughter). See Brown ancestry/family

Brown, Anna Ruth (sister), 58, 62, 161

See also Brown ancestry/family

Brown, Annie (Annie Brown Adams) (daughter)

on Brown’s pre-raid discouragement, 198

on Harpers Ferry raider unanimity, 224

at the Kennedy farm, 254

photo, 50

religion questioned by, 196, 320–22

returning to North Elba, 254–55

See also Brown ancestry/family

Brown, Dianthe Lusk (first wife), 161–63, 197, 336n40, 380n69

Brown, Edward (half-brother), 65

See also Brown ancestry/family

Brown, Ellen (daughter). See Brown ancestry/family

Brown, Florella (daughter), 86, 94, 115

Brown, Florella (sister), 159, 211

Brown, Frederick (brother), 64, 68, 167

See also Brown ancestry/family

Brown, Frederick (son)

as abolitionist speaker, 382n82

Doyle and, 122

Eastern abolitionists and, 64

mental illness, 156–59, 162, 188, 365n52

migration to Kansas, 86

murdered by Border Ruffians, 11, 158, 179, 378n57

photo, 109

Pottawatomie massacre, 129–34, 139, 157–58, 365n51, 365n52

See also Brown ancestry/family

Brown, G. W., 99–100, 104, 120, 357n11, 357n14

Brown, Hannah (grandmother), 59

Brown, Hannah Owen (great-grandmother). See Brown ancestry/family

Brown, Jason (son)

imprisonment, 160, 210

mental illness, 161, 342n131

migration to Kansas, 86–87

photo, 109

Pottawatomie massacre, 15, 126–29, 132, 159, 199, 364n46

as religious skeptic, 68, 98, 341n114

See also Brown ancestry/family

Brown, Jeremiah Root (half-brother)

on Brown’s monomania, 169

Brown’s will given to, 24

clemency plea, 64, 147, 167

family assistance provided, 383n95

family support, 64–65

marriage, 40

Pottawattamie massacre, 349n5

slavery war and, 168

weapons stored by, 64

Brown, John

affinities with Owen, Sr., 60, 66–70, 82–84

aliases, 23, 75, 142, 226, 252

ancestral home, 41

antislavery oath, 67, 94, 120

autobiography, 53–54, 59–62, 68, 355n76

as businessman, 26–32, 59, 68–70, 80, 82–85, 142, 187

chivalry, 136

Civil War prophecy, 8, 326–28

Cook cut off from, 285

death, exposure to, 44–45, 82, 101

“Declaration of Liberty”, 203, 213–15

as fugitive, 95, 142, 206

as fundraiser, 12, 167, 205–7, 214, 241, 254–56

hubris, 55–56, 82, 141, 235, 248

interrogation (artist’s rendering), 313

lost capital, 315

papers of, discovered, 216–18, 220, 223, 229, 399n61, 399n62

photo, 2276148175

physical health, 180–81, 186. See also malaria

politics, 9–11, 21, 98, 111–12

“Provisional Constitution and Ordinances”, 213–16, 310, 314, 410n18

rescue attempts of, proposed, 224, 319, 411n46

self-identity, 52, 76, 140–41, 311–12, 400n3

“Vindication of the Invasion, Etc.”, 216–18

William Walker and, 247

writing skills, 203

youth, 52–55

See also Brown’s Station; Canada; Chatham convention; Douglass, Frederick; execution; failure thesis; filibusters; Harpers Ferry headings; Kansas (free-state); Kansas proslavery factions; martyrdom; mental illness; military command (Brown’s); Perkins, Simon; Pottawatomie massacre; propaganda; religion; terror; Wakarusa settlement; Wakarusa War

Brown, John, Jr. (son)

apostasy of, 129, 196

arrest, 159–60, 210

education, 47–49, 322

on free-state fighting forces, 87–88

Harpers Ferry preparations, 250–55

independence, 131–32

as Kansas free-state legislator, 79–80, 83, 88, 98, 106, 133

as Kansas free-state militia commander, 11, 128

mental illness, 159–62

militancy, 133–34

photo, 33109

Pottawatomie massacre, 78–79, 122, 126, 128, 139–40, 159–61

slaves liberated by, 161

See also Brown ancestry/family

Brown, Martha (daughter-in-law), 254–55

See also Brown ancestry/family

Brown, Martha (sister), 326n131

Brown, Mary Ann Day (second wife)

Chambersburg and, 254

financial difficulties, 91–92

in North Elba, 84–85

photo, 50

prison letters to, 318–20, 324–27, 334n17

visiting Brown in prison, 319–20

Brown, Oliver Owen (brother), 62–64, 66, 167, 382n82

See also Brown ancestry/family

Brown, Oliver (son)

at Chambersburg, 252

family strife resolved by, 366–67n67

at Harpers Ferry, 285, 290

illness, 97

impetuous character, 131–34, 366n66

Kennedy farm and, 251, 252–54

migration to Kansas, 92

in North Elba, 254–55

photo, 288

rejoining Brown, 199, 241

Starry and, 283

See also Brown ancestry/family

Brown, Owen (father) (Owen, Sr.)

as abolitionist, 35, 55–56, 66–67, 81, 120

affinities with John, 60, 66–70, 82–84

approval craved by Brown, 94, 141

as businessman, 29, 34, 35–39

death, 92–95, 141–42

Hudson home, 56, 68, 81

as patriarch, 25–26, 40–48, 57–58, 80–84

prestige/prosperity of, 38–39, 43–44, 89, 141

religious convictions, 35–39, 55–57, 66–70, 81, 89–90, 141, 322

sons’ migration to Kansas, 66–70, 89–90

wives of, 48–51

youth, 37–38

Brown, Owen (son)

at Chambersburg, 254

Harpers Ferry and, 217, 241, 252, 260, 417n8

loyalty to Brown, 225

migration to Kansas, 86–87

Pottawatomie massacre, 117, 129–32, 199, 351n18, 363n39, 365n52, 365n53

religious apostasy, 129

rescripting, 115

See also Brown ancestry/family; Pottawatomie massacre

Brown, Reese, 102–4, 107, 117, 120, 135

Brown, Ruth (daughter), 84–85, 123, 129, 161–63, 322

See also Brown ancestry/family

Brown, Ruth Mills (mother), 60, 82, 154–55, 157

See also Brown ancestry/family

Brown, Sally Root (stepmother), 60–61, 352n26

Brown, Salmon (brother), 61–64, 66, 155–56, 334n15

See also Brown ancestry/family

Brown, Salmon (son)

on Brown’s religious convictions, 8

on Cato’s Court, 107–10, 351n18

education, 61–62

on Harpers Ferry, 156, 250

independence, 366n66

migration to Kansas, 86, 92

militancy, 88, 133

muscular tremors, 156

Pottawatomie massacre, 115, 117–18, 124, 129–34, 139–40, 158, 199, 362n13

Wakarusa negotiations, 100

See also Brown ancestry/family

Brown, Watson (son)

death, 334n17

at Harpers Ferry, 2, 261–62, 286–87, 290, 292, 294

in North Elba, 91–92, 157

rejoining Brown, 241

underground railroad and, 251

See also Brown ancestry/family

Brown, William Wells, 242

Brown ancestry/family overview, 29–51

Brown’s Station (Brownsville), Kansas

appealed to, from Lawrence, Kansas, 78–79

Brown’s arrival in, 85, 89, 98–100

destroyed, 126–27

established, 24

family endangered, 96

mail, 89

Pottawattamie massacre, 126–27

pride in, 101

proslavery opposition nexus, 114

Brua, Joseph, 284–85, 287, 293

Bryant, William Cullen, 205

Bryrne, Terence, 295, 305

Buchanan, James

Harpers Ferry raid reported to, 265, 275

marines sent to Harpers Ferry, 5, 249, 296

political ineffectiveness, 149

reward offered for Brown’s arrest, 211

Buford, Jefferson, 77, 112–13, 114, 121–22

Bunyan, John

Pilgrim’s Progress, 198

Byrne, Terence, 268, 290, 300

Calvinism, 14, 35–36, 55, 82, 341n114

Camp Hill, 4, 283

Canada

Brown losing support in, 406n79

Douglass and, 214, 228–29

freed slaves sent to, 12, 161, 226, 236–37, 248, 349n3

freed slaves to be educated in, 27, 66, 234, 311

recruits awaited, 251

recruits not mobilized, 239

Redpath and, 161

St. Catherines, 240

See also Chatham (western Canada) convention

Cato, Sterling G., 106–11, 359–60n55, 359n51, 359n53, 360n59

Chambers, George W., 262–65, 284, 289

ChambersburgPennsylvania

Brown/Douglass meeting near, 229, 231, 251

Brown’s forces departing, 250–51

escaped slaves and, 273–74

Harpers Ferry staging area, 217, 251–52

indicated on map, 3

Kagi and, 217, 251, 254–55

Mary Brown and, 254

Sharps rifles in, 253, 260

Channing William Ellery, 35

CharlestownVirginia

Brown imprisoned in, 8, 24, 179, 312

Harpers Ferry raid, 283–84, 287

unrest in, 244

Chatham (western Canada) convention

black recruits, 12, 213–15, 252

disappointing results of, 239–40

Douglass and, 214–15, 228–29

location, 397n41

Provisional Government and, 215–16

purposes, 213

Realf and, 213, 233–35, 404n48

refugee community planned, 311

Tidd and, 224

underground railroad and, 398n50

Virginia incursion plans revealed at, 234

Cheerful Yesterdays (Higginson), 224

ChildLydia Maria, 320

Christ. See Jesus Christ

Civil Rights Movement, 150–51

Civil War

Brown precipitating, 149–50, 328

Brown prophesying, 8, 326–28

Harpers Ferry raid anticipating, 6, 12, 23, 230

Kansas wars anticipating, 105

Lincoln on, 333n2

revisionist history, 149–52, 373–74n14

civil war (Brown’s), 138, 142, 237–39, 311, 330n13

clemency

Brown as deserving of, 164

forfeited, 146

Jeremiah Brown and, 64, 147, 167

mental illness and, 154, 373n12, 381–82n79

cognitive dissonance, 309–10, 312–19, 325–28

Collamer, Jacob, 238–39

Committee of Public Safety, 99–101

Commonwealth v. Rogers, 174

Connecticut

Brown family headstone in, 257

Brown family in, 29, 35–40

business ventures in, 91

pikes forged in, 4

Salmon educated in, 61–62

connection (Brown family), 24–48, 64–65, 335n21, 339n89

The Conquest of Kansas by Missouri and Her Allies (Phillips), 205

Cook, John E.

Brown cut off from, 285

capture, 257–58, 274

confession, 257–58, 271

Douglass and, 229

on exit strategy, 224

hostages taken by, 260, 265–66, 268

liberated slaves and, 269–71, 274, 285, 287

photo, 288

Realf and, 234

as spy, 151, 229, 257

Wise on, 257–58, 413n68

Copeland, John Anthony, Jr., 251, 261, 287, 288, 420n55

Coppoc, Barclay, 257, 260

Coppoc, Edwin

among last able-bodied combatants, 296

final assault and, 300

lending money to Brown, 255

misled about raid support, 279

surrender, 302–3, 305

trial, 292, 312, 314

court systems, 106–11, 114, 117, 141, 351n18

Crittenden Compromise, 247

Cromwell, Jacob, 264

Cromwell, Oliver, 8, 14, 22, 212

Cross, Reason, 285

Daily Journal (Lawrence), 77, 115

Daingerfield, John E. P., 268–69, 300, 301, 303–5, 329n7

Daniels, Jim, 211

Davis, Jefferson, 105, 317

Day, Mary (sister-in-law), 125–26

Day, Orson (brother-in-law), 94, 126–28, 332n39

Day cabin, 127–28

“Declaration of Liberty” (Brown), 203, 213–15

Delaney, Martin, 213, 215, 235, 239, 397n41

Democratic Party, 99, 331–32n31

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) (American Psychiatric Association), 153, 159, 199, 372n9

Dillon, Merton, 232

double bind, 68–70, 347–48n86, 352n31

Douglas, Stephen A., 10

Douglas CountyKansas, 98, 107

Douglass, Frederick

Brown confiding in, 337n49

Brown described by, 167, 182, 247

Brown’s friendship with, 66, 84

on Brown’s liberated slaves, 313

on Brown’s violence, 404n44

Canada and, 214, 228–29

Chatham convention and, 215

Cook and, 229

Delaney and, 397n41

as editor, 402n27

Frederick Douglass’ Paper, 106, 111

Harpers Ferry and, 226, 228–31, 239–41, 312, 403n37, 404n42

on heroism vs. insanity, 150

Kagi and, 228, 231

on the Mason committee, 404n45

meeting with Brown in Chambersburg, 229, 231, 251

meeting with Brown in Philadelphia, 251

meeting with Brown in Springfield, 226

photo, 227230

Provisional Constitution written at home of, 228

as public speaker, 402n27

slave insurrection and, 228, 232

on slave owners, 404n44

slavery portrayed by, 54

on terror, 232

underground railroad, 402n27

Dow, Charles, 98–99, 102, 107, 116–17, 120

Downer, W. B., 265, 272

Doyle, Drury, 110, 128

Doyle, James P.

Brown’s shooting of, post-mortem, 129, 139–41

contempt for, 131, 138

Henry Thompson and, 108

Law and Order Party member, 110, 114

Lucius Mills and, 122–23, 138

Morse and, 122–23

motives for murder of, 114, 117–23

murder of, 79, 127, 134, 138–39, 365n53

offenses against women and, 123–26

proximity to victims’ cabins, 139

Shawnee legislature member, 79

terror and, 140

Weiner’s store burned by, 127

Doyle, John, 136

Doyle, Mahalia, 136, 139

Doyle, William P., 110

Dred Scott decision, 214, 216

DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders), 153, 159, 199, 372n9

Dutch Henry’s Crossing, Kansas, 79, 111, 119, 138–39

Eakin, John Paul, 52

Eastern abolitionists

in Boston, 13, 78, 179, 188, 205–9, 241

Brown and, 8, 84, 212

financial support, 74, 167

Frederick Brown and, 64

Missouri raid and, 205–8

“Old Brown’s Farewell”, 205–8

Redpath and, 244

Eastern press, 13, 103–4, 203–5, 257, 311

See also newspapers/press; propaganda

economic warfare, 223, 244, 311

education of freed slaves. See under*it Canadaunder*it North Elba, New York

Edwards, Jonathan, 36–39, 54–55, 81, 141

The Emergence of Lincoln (Nevins), 26–27

Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 7, 150, 317, 333n7

Essex CountyNew YorkSee North ElbaNew York

evangelism

Brown and, 7

Brown/Brown, Sr. affinities, 83

militancy and, 90

monomania and, 177

movements, 339n85

New Lights and, 36

Owen, Sr. and, 39, 55

rejection of, 129

slavery and, 75, 177

tenets, 330n16

See also religion

execution

artists rendering, 326

Brown prepared to face, 312

cheerfulness in the face of, 146–47, 152, 178–79, 189, 318, 325

Civil War prophecy, 327–28

date announced to Mary, 318–19

shame renounced, 323–24

fagots, 280–81, 310

failure thesis

Brown’s insurrectionism and, 26–29

Kansas wars, 79

monomania, 27

Nevins and, 149

Potter and, 151

religious motivation vs., 34

Rossbach on, 336–37n43

filibusters, 246–48, 256, 310, 408–9n3

First Calvinistic Congregational Church (HudsonOhio), 24, 40, 66–67

Floyd, John B., 254, 265

Forbes, Hugh

on Brown as Gideon, 311

as Brown pamphleteer, 207–9

Brown’s falling out with, 235–40, 312

Brown’s plans betrayed by, 212, 215, 233, 252

insurrection’s dangers seen by, 317

Realf and, 233

Fouke, Christine, 289

Franklin, Benjamin, 209, 322

Franklin CountyKansas, 109–10, 113, 121–22, 252

Franklin Mills, Ohio, 28–29, 63, 66

Frederickstown volunteers, 296

Free Soil Party, 241

Free State Hotel, 79, 99, 360n68

free-state. See Kansas (free-state)

free-white-state men, 102, 107, 214

Fugitive Slave Act (1850)*, 353n45

Fugitive Slave Law (1851)*, 111, 244

Garibaldi, Giuseppe, 235

Garnet, Henry Highland, 228, 240

Garrett, John W., 265

Garrison, William Lloyd

on Brown’s Harpers Ferry motivation, 317

on Brown’s violence, 429n39

Liberator, 246–47

as non-resistant abolitionist, 8, 63, 150–51, 319

Villard and, 121

Garrisonians

as abolitionists, 330n16

as fanatics, 150–51

as non-resistant abolitionists, 75, 150–51

violence accepted by, 243

William Walker denounced by, 246

Gault House Saloon, 276, 284

Geary, John W., 11

Gershon, Elliot, 154

Gibson, John Thomas, 283

Giddings, Joshua, 105, 218

Gideon (biblical warrior), 7–8, 14, 135, 142, 311, 323

Goodale, S. N., 164, 166

Grant, John, 123–27

Grant, Mary, 123–24, 157

Great Awakening, 35–37, 51, 81

Greeley, Horace, 102–3, 204–5, 206, 330n17

GreenIsrael, 298–300, 303–4

Green, Shields

among last able-bodied combatants, 296

joining Brown, 231–32

at the Kennedy farm, 256

sketch of, 288

surrender, 300, 305

on trial with Brown, 312

Washington’s abduction and, 266

gunpowder, 280–81, 310, 418n24

Haiti, 161, 242, 255, 314

Hall’s Rifle Works, 1, 283, 287

Hamilton, Charles, 211–12

Hamtramck Guards, 291

Hand, Sally Marion, 115

Hand, Titus, 115

Hanway, James, 107, 115, 122, 124, 157

Harpers Ferry armory

building complex, 4

gates, 261

hostages/prisoners, 260, 268, 277, 284

indicated on map, 259276

occupied by Brown’s men, 1, 261, 268, 273, 278

photo, 262

security, 249, 258, 260

weapons, 258, 280–81, 418n24

yard, 291

Harpers Ferry arsenal

Brown remaining in, 232

indicated on map, 259276

occupied by Brown’s men, 1, 269, 273

security, 249, 258

troops overlooking, 284

weapons, 258, 265, 283

Harpers Ferry engine-house

Brown trapped in, 2, 5, 220, 271, 282, 290–91, 296–304

final attack on, 6, 296–304, 424–25n117

hostages/prisoners in, 4–5, 271, 285, 291–96, 298–304

indicated on map, 259276

photo, 286

surrender, 296–306

Harpers Ferry hostages/prisoners

in armory, 260, 268, 277, 284

Brown’s defense and, 312

Brown’s purposes explained to, 312

Brown’s treatment of, 187, 284–85, 292–95, 298, 310, 312, 316–17, 422n85, 423n87

Cook taking, 260, 265–66, 268

in engine-house, 4–5, 271, 285, 291–96, 298–304

Lee and, 5, 296, 329n5

slave owners as, 235, 249, 266–69, 293, 295, 310

slaves as, 312

speeches to, 310, 317

Stockholm syndrome, 295, 423n98

Harpers Ferry motivation

cognitive dissonance in relating, 312–19

confusion regarding, 221

cultural determinants of, 332n41

Kansas wars, 294

as manifesto, 311

political action, 221, 248–49, 279

religion and, 138, 369n99

revenge, 180, 187, 294, 387n5

slave insurrection, 280, 311

slave liberation, 266–67, 278, 294–95

terror, 279–80

weapons, 417n8

Harpers Ferry raid

overview, 1–9, 246–75

betrayed, 212, 228

Brown’s sacrifices in, 4, 23–24, 316, 318, 334n17

cease fire, 284–87, 289, 291–93

Civil War anticipated by, 6, 12, 23, 230

as conspiracy, 221–32, 317

delay in ending, 232, 277–79, 295, 311, 314, 329n1

early plans for, 236, 405n58

exit strategy, 225–26, 330n13

failure, 217, 220–21, 248–50, 278, 297, 309–10, 318, 324

final attack, 6, 296–304, 424–25n117

flags of truce, 4, 285, 292, 294, 298, 310

funds for, running low, 255–56

hostages/prisoners. See Harpers Ferry hostages/prisoners

incendiary weapons, 280–81

Kansas wars and, 73, 88

martyrdom, 318

mental illness and, 145–47, 151, 180, 187–90, 223, 401n9

military aspects of, 220–21

military response to, 283–92, 295–306

misleading information provided by Brown, 279, 417n13

Missouri raid and, 314–15

monomania, 277

negotiations to end, 311

Northerners and, 217–18

origins of, 234, 257

plan opposed, 224–26, 229–32, 279, 401n17, 411n46

plan overview, 260

Potomac bridge. See Potomac bridge (main heading)

Pottawatomie massacre and, 274

prisoners. See Harpers Ferry hostages/prisoners

Provisional Constitution and, 310

recruits, 9, 225, 239–41, 250–52, 255, 284, 354n55

reinforcements, 278–79

religion and, 7, 180, 315–16, 320, 323

revenge and, 180, 187, 294

Secret Six and, 218, 225–26

slaves uninformed about, 221, 417n14

speeches by Brown during, 266, 277, 294, 310, 312

surrender, 296–306

terror and, 233, 239, 279–80

timing, 224, 236, 250–56, 405n58

train arrival/departure during, 263–65, 275, 278, 295–96

train passengers, 264–65, 282, 295

“Vindication of the Invasion”, 216–18

Wager house. See Wager house (main heading)

See also Anderson, Jeremiah; Brown, John Jr.; Brown, Oliver; Brown, Owen; Brown, Watson; Buchanan, James; Chambersburg, Pennsylvania; Kagi, John Henry; Kennedy farm; newspapers/press; Potomac Bridge; slave insurrection; slave liberation; Stevens, Aaron Dwight; Thompson, Henry; Tidd, Charles Plummer; U.S. armed forces; U.S. forces; weapons; Wise, Henry

Harpers Ferry slaves

armed, 4, 268, 272–73, 285

Brown feared by, 414–15n98

in engine house, 273, 277, 295

as hostages, 312

participating in raid, 268–74, 285

Harpers Ferry (Virginia)

described, 4–5, 258

indicated on map, 259276

maps, 3

photo, 327

print, 2

Harpers Ferry weapons

in armory, 258, 280–81, 418n24

in arsenal, 258, 265, 283

brought by Brown, 186, 248, 260, 271, 280–81, 303, 316, 418n24

See also Harpers Ferry armory; Harpers Ferry arsenal

Harris, J. H., 251

Harris, James, 110, 118–19, 136, 139–41

Hayden, Lewis, 254–55

Hazlett, Albert, 258

Herald (Leavenworth), 107, 356n3

Herald (New York) (Bennett, ed.), 218, 235–36

Herald of Freedom (G. W. Brown, ed.), 99, 102–3, 112, 120, 235

Higgins, Patrick, 261–65

Higginson, Thomas Wentworth

Brown criticized by, 223

on Brown’s mental balance, 224

Cheerful Yesterdays, 224

confidence of, waning, 255

as Kansas abolitionist correspondent, 204–5

Lane and, 205

martyrdom and, 223

Mary Brown escorted to Boston by, 319

photo, 222

rescue attempt advocated by, 224, 319

on slaveholder terror, 242

violence advocated by, 167

See also Secret Six

higher law, 103, 220, 268, 312, 321

Highland, Henry, 228, 402–3n31

Hinton, Richard J., 123, 204–5, 243, 250, 397n44

Holt, James, 287

Hopkins, Samuel, 35–37, 51, 81

Howe, Samuel Gridley, 212, 222, 234, 238, 255

See also Secret Six

Hoyt, George H., 179, 188, 311, 319–20

HudsonOhio

abolitionist activities in, 66–70

Brown family home, 40–41, 4156, 56–57, 68, 81, 94–95

First Calvinistic Congregational Church, 24, 40, 66–67

Harpers Ferry preparations and, 64

Kansas preparations and, 89

Owen, Sr. as founder, 81–82

underground railroad, 66

Humphrey, Heman (cousin), 146–47, 327

Hunter, Andrew, 6, 188, 314–16

Hunter, Harry, 289

Hurd, H. B., 247

Hutchinson, William, 211

Independent Congregational Church (RichmondVirginia), 27, 66

Innes, Stephen, 35

insanity (legal term), 147–48, 151

See also mental illness

insurrection against slavery, 6, 149, 232, 239, 241–45

See also slave insurrection

Jackson, Andrew, 29, 39, 51

James, William, 197–98

Jarvis, Edward, 172, 177

Jefferson, Thomas, 174, 213

Jefferson CountyKansas, 107, 110

Jefferson CountyVirginia, 269

Jefferson Guards, 283, 285

Jeremiah (biblical prophet), 179, 318

Jesus Christ

Brown’s abolitionism and, 80–81

Brown’s martyrdom and, 146, 325

Calvin’s, 35

captain of liberty, 323, 331n26

Kansas wars and, 94

slavery’s end and, 323

Jim (coachman), 270, 287

John Brown, 1800-1859: A Biography Fifty Years After (Villard), 296

“John Brown’s Body” (Northern army marching song), 74, 328

Jones, James Monroe, 240

Jones, Samuel J., 78, 98–100, 111–12, 120

Kagi, John Henry

Brown/Douglass Chambersburg meeting and, 231

as Brown’s nurse, 181

as Brown’s Secretary of War, 216

Douglass and, 228, 231

at Harpers Ferry, 205, 260–61, 287

Harpers Ferry preparations, 217, 250–51, 251, 252–53, 254–55

on Harpers Ferry timing, 224, 250

as Kansas abolitionist correspondent, 204–5

as second-in-command, 205

on slave discontent, 256

volunteers and, 241

William Walker and, 247

Kansas (free-state)

abolitionists under threat, 113

battles won for, 11

Brown’s service to, 199–200, 305

call to arms in, 96

cause, 65, 75

constitutional conventions, 78, 83, 88, 98, 101–2

immigrants, 65, 78

leaders, 11, 75, 78, 83, 96

militia/volunteers, 8, 11, 74, 79, 88, 99, 116. See also Pottawatomie Rifles

newspapers. See Daily Journal*it; Herald of Freedom*it

radical politicians, 238

settlements/towns, 10–11, 77

Southerners’ invasion of, 247

supporters, 8, 10, 12, 78

See also LawrenceKansasTopekaKansas

Kansas proslavery attacks/lawlessness

Brown informed of, 87

Brown’s religious convictions and, 74–76, 80–92, 94, 200

Brown’s retaliation against, 11–12, 14. See also Pottawatomie massacre

Marais des Cygnes massacre, 11

mental illness and, 11, 74–75

in Osawatomie, 86

Reese Brown as victim, 102–3

See also Border Ruffians; Kikapoo Rangers; Missourians

Kansas proslavery factions

Brown terrorizing, 75, 77–78, 86

conspiracy, 78, 97

courts, 106–11, 114, 117

elections and, 11, 102

innocent proslavery citizens among, 28

newspapers, 107, 112, 356n3

Pierce administration supporting, 97–98, 105–6

Southerners, allied with, 11

U.S. Congress supporting, 111

Kansas proslavery government/legislation

Brown’s early repudiation of, 132–33, 199

Brown’s religion convictions and, 97

Law and Order (States Rights) Party, 78, 98

Missourians supporting, 78

mistrust of, 12

Osawatomie and, 86

Pierce administration supporting, 97–98, 105–6

slavery in Kansas, 11

U.S. Congress supporting, 111

See also Shawnee legislature

Kansas proslavery militias. See Border Ruffians; Kikapoo Rangers; Missourians

Kansas territory

Brown family migration to, 66–70, 85–92, 131, 209–10, 354n55

free-white-state men, 102, 107, 214

opened for settlement, 237

slaveholders, 10–11, 54, 110

statehood, 105

winter (1856), 96–98, 113, 141

Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854), 10, 106–7

Kennedy, Booth, 252–53

Kennedy farm (Maryland)

Annie Brown at, 254

Brown cut off from, 285

Brown’s papers left at, 217–18, 229, 399n61, 399n62

danger of exposure at, 250–54, 256

Harpers Ferry staging area, 5, 217, 250–54

photo, 253

weapons brought to, 186

Kikapoo Rangers, 102–4, 135, 238

See also Border Ruffians; Missourians

Kitzmiller, Archibald, 268, 280–81, 283, 286–87

Know-Nothing-Party, 241, 407n88

Lane, James Henry (Liberator of Kansas)

arrest warrant issued against, 112

free-state forces led by, 158

funds contributed by, 169

Higginson and, 205

Pottawatomie massacre, 119, 351n13

pre-state forces led by, 11

Redpath and, 204

treaties negotiated by, 78, 99–101, 133

Langdon, Charles H., 241

Law and Order Party, 78, 98, 110–11, 114

Lawrence, Amos, 10, 78, 167–68, 383n89

LawrenceKansas

Brown as hero in, 169

Brown’s attempts to liberate, 11, 78–79, 93–94, 99

Brown’s criticized in, 211

Brown’s exploits circulated in, 211–12

Brown’s military command in, 99, 120

Daily Journal, 77, 115

free-state convention, 88

free-state town, 10, 77–79, 104

proslavery forces and, 98, 111–13, 116, 120, 122

sacked, 10–11, 79, 85, 116, 132–33, 142, 199

treaty, 98–99

Wakarusa War and, 98–99, 106, 238

See also TopekaKansas

Leary, Lewis Sheridan, 251, 261, 287

LeavenworthKansas, 10, 77–78, 98, 104, 250

Leavenworth Weekly Herald, 107, 356n3

Lee, Robert E.

Brown as viewed by, 220, 248, 297

Brown captured by, 5

Brown protected by, 311

Brown’s motives understood by, 311, 313

engine-house hostages and, 5, 296, 329n5

Harpers Ferry final attack and, 296–300, 302–4

photo, 297

Leeman, William, 268, 288, 290

Lemon, J. T., 35

Levin, Harry, 176

Liberator (Garrison, ed.), 246–47

Liberty Guards, 99, 336n38

Liberty Leagues, 251

Liberty Party, 241

Lincoln, Abraham, 8, 27, 150, 247, 317, 333n2

Logan (train passenger), 272, 415n117

Loguen, Jermain Wesley, 240

Lovejoy, Elijah, 67, 94, 120, 347n73

Lower Hall’s Island, 258, 260–61

Lucker, Phil, 271–72

Lusk, Milton, 26, 336n40, 380n70

malaria

Brown and, 9, 169, 180–82, 186, 193, 197

epidemic, 180–81

Harpers Ferry and, 151

Owen, Sr. and, 38

Malin, John C.

on Brown’s migration to Kansas, 85

on Cato’s court, 110–11

on Pottawatomie massacre, 15–16, 77, 114

on rescripting, 100

mania. See under*it mental illness

Marais des Cygnes massacre, 11, 211

maroon colonies, 223, 239, 248, 313

MartinsburgVirginia, 1, 3, 11, 275, 291

martyrdom

Brown’s, celebrated in the north, 74

Brown’s conflicting attitudes toward, 318

Brown’s higher station and, 324

as Brown’s strategy, 317

Christian, 152, 313, 315, 317, 320

Civil War and, 328

embraced, 198

Emerson on, 317

Harpers Ferry, 318

Higginson and, 223

improvised, 8–9

Jesus Christ and Brown’s, 146, 325

language of, 16

monomania and, 175, 178, 326

the press and, 147, 203–4

of Reese Brown, 102–4

self-identified, 147

slavery and, 4–6

as ultimate goal, 322, 326–27

Wise and, 319

Martyr’s Day, 150

Mason, James, 169, 180, 233, 238, 269, 432n84

Mason Committee, 238–39, 300, 315, 404n45, 410n18

Massachusetts Emigrant Aid Company, 206, 237

Massachusetts Kansas Aid Committee, 124, 205

Massachusetts legislature, 9, 167, 208

Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court, 173

May, Robert, 246

McMinn, Thomas, 110, 118, 125

Melville, Herman, 176, 325, 386–87n130

mental illness

overview, 145–78

Antisocial Personality Disorder, 198–200, 394n68

in Brown family history, 145, 152, 154–63

Brown’s denial of, 27, 145–47, 178

clemency and, 154, 373n12, 381–82n79

Delusional Disorder, 200

depression, 190–98, 391n41

Harpers Ferry and, 145–47, 151, 180, 187–90, 223, 401n9

historical research, 148–49

mania, 157–62, 170–74, 188–90, 197, 379n59

manic-depressive disorder, 384n104

modern psychiatric research, 153–54, 376n30, 376n31

Oates on, 14–15

personal disintegration, 145–47

Pottawatomie massacre and, 74, 128–29, 159–60, 198–200

religious fanaticism and, 146, 149, 197–98

revisionist history and, 373–74n14

slave insurrection and, 149, 401n11

slave liberation and, 146

slavery and, 164–66

soldier’s heart, 379n66

See also Brown, Frederick; Brown, Jason; Brown, John, Jr.; failure thesis; insanity; Pottawatomie massacre; trial

Meriam, Francis Jackson, 255–57, 260, 281, 323

military command (Brown’s)

fame of, and the press, 204

Harpers Ferry and, 220–21, 306, 323–24

in LawrenceKansas, 99, 120

Missourians and, 238

monomania and, 188

origins of, 85, 95

Pottawatomie massacre and, 142, 349n3

Robinson and, 120

self-identity and, 169, 323

undefeated in Kansas, 248

Mills, Benjamin, 284

Mills, Gideon (uncle), 155, 165

Mills, Lucias (cousin), 122–27, 131–32

Mills, Oliver (cousin), 155

Missouri Compromise (1820), 10, 247

Missouri raid

overview, 210–12

antislavery sentiment, 241

Brown as fugitive following, 251

Eastern press, 205–8

Harpers Ferry and, 314–15

providential nature of, 322–23

slaves liberated during, 248

Missouri, 10–11, 102, 211, 224

Missourians

arming for war, 104

Brown and, 138

Brown’s military command in, 238

LawrenceKansas threatened by, 78–79, 93–94, 99, 120, 122

Osawatomie and, 86–88

Pottawatomie massacre and, 116

reviled, 104, 210

slavery and, 10–11

Wakarusa War and, 98–101

weapons seized by, 106

See also Border Ruffians; Kikapoo Rangers

Mohr, James, 173

MonocacyMaryland, 264

monomania

overview, 145–78

Brown’s detractors and, 8

Brown’s last days and, 325–26

Brown’s military command and, 188

evangelism and, 177

failure thesis and, 27

Harpers Ferry and, 277

ignored by Brown, 178

martyrdom and, 175, 178, 328

nineteenth-century understanding of, 27, 74, 169–74

Oates on, 14–15

popularization of, 174–78

Realf and, 235

religion and, 149, 164–68, 171–72, 175–78, 328

slavery and, 337n45

See also mental illness

Montgomery, James, 11–12, 169

moral disengagement, 137–39

Morse, John, 122–28, 362–63n26

National Kansas Committee, 237, 247, 382n85

Nell, William C., 242

Neutrality Act (1818), 246

Nevins, Allan, 14–15, 149–50, 152

The Emergence of Lincoln, 26–27

New Divinity, 8, 55, 322

New England Emigrant Aid Society

Amos Lawrence as director of, 167

Herald of Freedom owned by, 102

OsawatomieKansas and, 85

Robinson and, 99

Thayer founding, 10, 210

New York Associated Press, 204

New York Post (Bryant, ed.), 205

New York Tribune (Greeley, ed.), 399n61

Newby, Dangerfield, 285, 419n45

newspapers/press

black, 314

Brown’ as martyr in, 147

Brown’s denial of mental illness, 147

Brown’s fame as guerrilla leader, 204

as Brown’s forum, 312, 327

editors solicited by Brown, 206

Herald (New York) (Bennett, ed.), 218, 235–36

Missouri, 211

Northern, 314

as partisan, 204

proslavery, 112

See also Eastern press; propaganda

newspapers/press (anti-slavery/free-state)

Brown as reader of, 21

Brown’s Kansas migration and, 80

destroyed in Lawrence, 79

Herald of Freedom (G. W. Brown, ed.), 99, 102–3, 112, 120, 235

Kansas territorial, 78

Missouri raid condemned, 211

Owen, Sr. and, 66, 90

Weekly Herald (Leavenworth), 107, 356n3

Nicaraguan emigration (code for Harpers Ferry), 247

Noble, Gregory, 35

North ElbaNew York

Brown family members remaining in, 24–25, 89, 91, 96

Brown family members returning to, 254–55

Brown family moving to, 51, 70, 85, 88

education of freed slaves, 27–28, 34, 70, 84–85

family monument at, 39, 91, 142

Gerrit Smith and, 70, 198

NorthamptonMassachusetts, 51

Northern abolitionists, 199, 244, 247, 317

Northern Army

Brown’s self-identity and, 138

Pottawatomie massacre, 73, 79, 119, 136, 200

Wakarusa War, 98

Northerners

antislavery sympathies, 6, 240, 278

Brown esteemed by, 326

Brown viewed by, 7, 13, 74, 247, 326

Brown’s trial, 312, 316–18, 326

Harpers Ferry and, 217–18

Kansas-Nebraska Act and, 10

racial stereotypes among, 241

settling in Kansas, 12, 106

slave catchers obstructed by, 7

as suspected conspirators, 218

Wise ridiculed by, 316

Oates, Stephen B.

on Brown’s mental illness, 14–15, 151–54

on Brown’s religious fanaticism, 7, 14–16

on Cato’s court, 111

on Pottawatomie massacre, 129–32, 140

To Purge This Land with Blood, 13–14, 129

on religion, 14–16

Oberlin Church, 81

Oberlin College, 66, 86

Ohio Anti-Slavery Society, 66

Old Brown (nickname), 183, 225, 273, 299

“Old Brown’s Farewell” (fundraising article), 205–8

Old John Brown (nickname), 5, 79, 139, 159, 254, 324

Old Man Brown (nickname), 119

Old Osawatomie (persona), 21, 86, 142, 298, 318

OsawatomieKansas

Brown brothers settling in, 85–87

Day cabin refuge and, 127–28

federal troop deployments near, 105

militia, 79, 101

New England Emigrant Aid Society and, 85

polling place, 98

as refuge, 11

retaliatory raid on, 158, 238, 405n66

settlers arming in, 122

settler’s meeting in, 107, 359n47

Southern strength increasing near, 112

Osawatomie Brown (persona), 5, 10–11, 75, 305, 316, 424n110

Osawatomie cabin, 87

Osawatomie Resolutions, 108–9, 360n59

Otis, William, 13

Oviatt, Orson, 61

panic. See terror

“Parallels” (Brown), 212

Parker, Richard, 188, 269, 316, 322

Parker, Theodore, 207–9, 222, 242, 243, 317

See also Secret Six

Pate, Henry Clay, 212

Paul (apostle), 309, 323–25, 327

penny press. See Eastern press

Perkins, Samantha, 65

Perkins, Simon

Brown in business with, 28–34, 51, 68–70, 82–85, 195, 197

Brown’s sons and, 131

Edward Brown and, 65

home of, 31

Owen, Sr. and, 47

Peter (apostle), 323

Phelps, Andrew J., 263–65, 272, 275, 279, 294

Philadelphia, 228, 251, 255

Phillips, Wendell, 205, 242–43, 255, 333n7, 347n73

Phillips, William Addison, 204–5

The Conquest of Kansas by Missouri and Her Allies, 205

physical health problems, 180–81, 186, 195, 393n59

See also malaria

Pierce, Franklin, 10–11, 97–98, 105–8, 149, 358n35

See also U.S. government

pikes

Chambersburg, arriving in, 253

Harpers Ferry raiders armed with, 261, 268–74

slaves to be armed with, 4, 280, 318, 418n30

Pilgrim’s Progress (Bunyan), 198

Pinel, Philippe, 172–73

Pinkerton, Allan, 211

PlainfieldConnecticut, 61

“Plan for the Abolition of Slavery” (Spooner), 243

plantation raids, 234, 239, 243–44, 311

Potomac bridge

Brown’s forces driven from, 284–85

Brown’s forces seizing, 260–62, 272, 278

described, 261–62

indicated on map, 259276

negotiations regarding, 5, 291, 311

photo, 327

Shepherd shot on, 264, 273

slaves patrolling, 272

Pottawatomie massacre

overviews, 11–16, 73–80, 114–40, 145

absolution for, 325

arrest warrants issued after, 360n59

Brown’s military command and, 142, 349n3

Brown’s participation in, 129, 139–41, 348n1, 349n5

Cato’s court and, 351n18

Family Massacre, 128–34, 365–66n54, 366n66

Harpers Ferry and, 274

Lane and, 119, 315n13

mental illness and, 74, 128–29, 159–60, 198–200

messenger sent by Grants, 125–26

Missourians and, 116

Northern Army and, 73, 79, 119, 136, 200

Oates on, 129–32, 140

offenses against women and, 123–24, 363–64n42

plan opposed, 365n52

political assassination, 116

preemptive strike, 120–28, 199, 394n69

religion and, 74–75, 135–37, 199–200, 369n99

retribution and, 116–20

Robinson and, 119–20, 351n13

Shawnee legislature and, 79, 98

slavery and, 132, 358n24

surveying spies, 122–24

terror, 117, 134–40

Thayer and, 349–50n6

Villard on, 121, 129–30, 360n68

See also Brown, Frederick; Brown, Jason, Jr.; Brown, John, Jr.; Brown, Owen; Brown, Salmon; Harris, James; Thompson, Henry; Townsley, John; Weiner, Theodore

Pottawatomie massacre victims. See Doyle, Drury; Doyle, James P.; Doyle, William P.; Sherman, Henry; Sherman, William; Wilkinson, Allen P.

Pottawatomie Rifles

Brown and, 94

Cato’s court and, 107–8, 110

defending LawrenceKansas, 122–23

John, Jr. and, 78–79

marching on Lawrence, Kansas, 78–79

Potter, David, 13, 77, 151, 358n24

Prairie CityKansas, 79, 123–24, 129

propaganda, 13, 203–19, 249, 306

See also newspapers/press

proslavery diabolism, 66, 76, 80, 120

Provisional Army (Brown’s), 213, 216, 257, 296, 399n54

“Provisional Constitution and Ordinances” (Brown)

American Revolution and, 214

captors urged to read, 187

vs. Declaration of Liberty, 213–14

Douglass’ home, written at, 228

Harpers Ferry raid, 310

Mason Committee report, printed in, 410n18

Wise urged to read, 316

Provisional Government (Chatham), 215–17

Provisional Government (proposed for the South), 248

punks (torches), 280–81

Quakers, 35–36, 54, 211, 323

Radical Abolitionist Party, 333n5

radical abolitionists

Brown among, 75

Brown speaking for, 187

conventions, 89, 199

correspondents as, 204

Kansas politicians as, 238

slave insurrection and, 237, 241

violence endorsed by, 167, 217, 241–42, 244

See also abolitionists

Ray, Isaac, 384n104

Treatise on the Medical Jurisprudence of Insanity, 171–72

Realf, Richard

abolitionist correspondent, 204–5

Brown, break with, 233–34, 404n48

in Brown’s army, 205

on Brown’s migration to Kansas, 354n55

Brown’s plans discussed by, 226, 233–35

Chatham convention and, 213, 233–35, 404n48

Cook and, 234

Forbes and, 233

as Kansas abolitionist correspondent, 204–5

monomania and, 235

rebellion. See insurrection against slavery; slave insurrection

Redpath, James

biography of Brown, 122, 335n35

on Brown’s civil war rhetoric, 6

Brown’s plans shared with, 244

Eastern abolitionists and, 64, 244

freed-slave Canada migration, 161

on Harpers Ferry timing, 250

as Kansas abolitionist correspondent, 204

Lane and, 204

Meriam and, 255

on Northerners’ misunderstanding of Brown, 150

on offenses against Brown women, 123

slave insurrection advocated, 205, 244

terror advocated, 244

Reeder, Andrew H., 107, 206

religion

overview, 7–10

bankruptcy and, 69

Brown’s abolitionism and, 26–27, 74–75, 80–82, 313, 324, 330n14

Brown’s discouragement and, 94

Brown’s imagination and, 197–98

Brown’s last days and, 309–28

death and, 146–47

double bind, 68–70

family history, 28, 34–39, 42–44, 54–57, 81–83, 320

as Harpers Ferry motivation, 138, 369n99

Harpers Ferry raid and, 7, 180, 315–16, 320, 323

monomania, 149, 164–68, 171–72, 175–78, 328

moral disengagement, 137–39

Oates on, 14–16

Pottawatomie massacre, 74–75, 135–37, 199–200, 369n99

retribution and, 120

revival of, 256

slave liberation and, 74, 169, 324, 350n8

terror and, 137

See also Calvinism; evangelism

religious apostasy

of Annie Brown, 196, 320–21

of Brown’s sons, 47–48, 129, 196

Brown’s war on slavery and, 51

of slaveowners, 81

religious fanaticism

accusations of, 7–8

Brown’s religious inspiration vs., 332n38

and the idiom of violence, 75

mental illness and, 146, 149, 197–98

See also monomania

Republican Party

Bleeding Kansas and, 12

on Brown as filibuster, 247

Brown’s insanity and, 151

emergence of, 241

Harpers Ferry and, 218

slavery and, 403n32

rescripting, 114–15, 127, 130, 334n15

retribution

Declaration of Liberty and, 214

Lincoln on, 37

Pottawatomie massacre and, 14–15, 116–20

proslavery courts and, 111

RichmondPennsylvania, 24

Robinson, Charles

arrested, 112

Brown’s civil war, 237–39

Kansas free-state governor, 106

moderation urged by, 106

Pottawatomie massacre and, 119–20, 351n13

Wakarusa settlement, 78, 99–101

RochesterNew York, 228–29, 402n27

Rogers, Commonwealth v., 174

Rogers, John, 321

Rossbach, Jeffery, 242

Rowan, J. W., 283–84

Ruchames, Louis, 150–51

Ruffin, Edmund, 317

Ruggles, David, 51

Russell, Mrs. Thomas, 255

Russell, Thomas, 312

Russell, W. W., 301–3

Ruttman, Darrett, 35

St. CatherinesCanada, 240, 398n49

Sam (slave), 81

Samson (biblical hero), 323, 331n30, 393n67

Sanborn, Franklin

Brown introduced in Boston by, 205

on Brown’s attire, 183

on Brown’s mental balance, 193–94

on Brown’s migration to Kansas, 88

as chief nineteenth-century defender, 335n35

on dissension among Browns, 130

documents destroyed by, 390n31

financial support provided by, 212, 225–26, 255

Harpers Ferry plans unknown to, 234

photo, 222

See also Secret Six

Secret Six

allegiance of, maintaining, 278

Brown used by, 223

Brown’s boldness recognized by, 247

force endorsed by, 167, 217

Harpers Ferry and, 218, 225–26

members’ photos, 222

slave insurrection and, 167, 242

support provided by, 12, 278, 311, 382n85

Theodore Parker and, 209

See also Higginson, Thomas Wentworth; Howe, Samuel Gridley; Parker, Theodore; Sanborn, Franklin; Smith, Gerrit; Stearns, George L.

Seward, William, 10

Sewell, Richard, 247

Shannon, Wilson, 78, 98–100, 105, 107, 112

Sharps rifles (Beecher’s Bibles)

Beecher and, 10

Brown armed with, 1

Brown’s forces, used against, 284

in Chambersburg, 253, 260

gunpowder and, 281

at Harpers Ferry, 248, 260, 271, 280–81, 303

LawrenceKansas defenders armed with, 99

Missourians seizing, 106

proposed raid on Missourians and, 142

Shawnee legislature

Adair on, 106

antislavery expression outlawed by, 133

legalized, 98, 105–6

Pottawatomie massacre and, 79, 98

repudiated, 78, 88, 107, 359n47

Wakarusa settlement, 101

Shawnee MissionKansas, 78

Shenandoah Bridge, 221, 259, 284

SheperdstownVirginia, 291

Shepherd (slave), 289

Shepherd, Hayward, 263–65, 282, 310

Sherman, Henry (“Dutch Henry”)

Cato court juror, 110

Cato’s court held in tavern of, 106

as intended massacre victim, 118, 127, 140

John Grant and, 125–26

motives for murder of, 118–22

proximity to victim’s cabins, 139

Weiner’s store burned by, 127, 134

Sherman, William (“Dutch Bill”)

abduction and murder, 118, 140

John Grant and, 125–26

Morse and, 122–23, 125

motives for murder of, 118–22, 139

murder of, 79, 127, 365n51, 365n53

offenses against women and, 123–24

proximity to victims’ cabins, 139

Weiner’s store burned by, 127, 134

Sherman, William Tecumseh, 328

Simpson, Craig, 274

Sinn, Thomas, 292

slave insurrection

Brown and, 21, 149–50, 237, 238

Brown’s failure to incite, 21–23

Brown’s indictment and, 316

Brown’s intentions regarding, 311, 313–15, 318

Douglass, 228, 232

Harpers Ferry motivation, 280, 311

Harpers Ferry raid, 6, 221, 249, 279–80

mental illness and, 149, 401n11

Secret Six and, 167, 242

Southern fears of, 6, 149, 280, 314

unpredictability of, 236

Virginia, 331n23

See also insurrection against slavery

slave liberation

Declaration of Liberty, 150

as economic weapon, 226–28

Harpers Ferry motivation, 266–67, 278, 294–95

Harpers Ferry raid, 1, 232, 260, 266–69, 296

Kansas wars, 7

mental illness and, 146

religion and, 74, 169, 324, 350n8

in the South, 213, 244

U.S. government and, 228

See also Brown, John, Jr.; Cook, John E.; Harpers Ferry hostages/prisoners; Harpers Ferry motivation

slave owners

Brown frightening, 232–33, 248–49

Douglass on, 404n44

Fugitive Slave Law and, 111

as hostages/prisoners, 235, 248–49, 266–68, 293, 295, 310

as inhuman, 232

vs. Pottawattamie victims, 310

slaughter of, disavowed, 226, 310

targeted by Brown, 1–2, 10, 168

terror and, 243

U.S. government favoring, 12

Slave Power

Brown called to fight, 322

Brown’s antislavery oath and, 141

Browns’ hand forced by, 105

Brown’s mental health and, 164

conspiracy, 10, 81

economic attacks on, 223

federal authority and, 98

force advocated against, 243

God’s will and, 12, 67, 85, 120, 138

Kansas wars and, 28, 87–88, 199–200

politics vs., 9, 12, 67

tide turning against, 241

William Walker as tool of, 246

slaves/slavery

See also abolitionists; Douglass, Frederick; education of freed slaves; Harpers Ferry hostages/prisoners; Harpers Ferry raid; Harpers Ferry slaves; slave insurrection; Southerners; Tubman, Harriet; underground railroad; the South*fs

Smith, Gerrit

Brown consulting with, 84

Brown’s debt to, unpaid, 194

Brown’s mental state and, 185

funds sent by, 252, 255

Harpers Ferry plans unknown to, 234

North Elba land donated by, 70, 198

photo, 222

Radical Abolitionist Party member, 333n5

Thompson brothers, contract with, 185

See also Secret Six

the South

Border vs. Deep, 248

Brown as Jeremiah to, 318

Brown’s hopes to terrorize, 316

Brown’s prophecy and, 327

Brown’s rumored allies in, 317

destruction of slavery in, 12, 16, 51, 63, 187

invasion of, 63, 213, 218, 221

political dominance of, 331–32n31

proslavery migrants from, 63

slave insurrection and, 6, 149, 280, 314

slave liberation and, 213, 244

See also Virginians

Southerners

fears of abolitionist insurrection, 7, 149

invading Kansas, 247

Missourians allied with, 10

New Englanders and, 78

as perceived threat, 138

proslavery Kansas forces allied with, 97

provocation of, 316

reviled by free-staters, 102

strength increasing near Osawatomie, 112

Spartacus, 330n17

spartacus complex, 66, 151, 385n120

speeches

courtroom, 203

to Harpers Ferry hostages, 310, 317

Massachusetts legislature, 331n28

mental illness and, 382n80

at sentencing, 314–18, 323, 332n34

in Syracuse, 333n5

uninvited, 382n80

Spooner, Lysander, 243–44, 408n101

Spring, Rebecca, 320, 322, 430n44

SpringfieldMassachusetts

Brown family home, 41

Brown/Douglass meeting in, 226

business ventures in, 31, 83

Frederick Brown’s therapy in, 156

Puritan heritage, 35

Squire Brown. See Brown, Owen (father)

Starry, John, 268, 282–83, 287, 419n35

States Rights Party. See Law and Order Party

Stearns, George L., 206–7, 222, 238, 242, 252

See also Secret Six

Stevens, Aaron Dwight

in artist’s rendering, 313

on Brown’s support, 278–79

at Harpers Ferry, 260–61, 271, 285–87, 289–90

on Harpers Ferry exit delay, 311

Missouri farmer killed by, 211

photo, 288

Sinn and, 292

on trial with Brown, 312

in Wager house, 292

Stewart, George H., 265

Still, William, 251, 402–3n31

Strider, Samuel, 298

Stuart, Jeb, 5, 296, 298, 303–6

Subterranean Passage Way, 175, 236, 311

See also underground railroad

Sumner, Charles, 74

Taylor, Stewart, 261, 290

terror

Brown retreating from, 313, 318

Brown waging, 16–17, 75–77, 134–35, 138, 311

Brown’s understanding of, 245

Douglass on, 232

Doyle’s shooting as, 140

as economic weapon, 244

Harpers Ferry and, 233, 239, 279–80

Pottawatomie massacre and, 117, 135–38

religion and, 137

among slave owners, 243

slavery as, 136

in the South, 244–45, 278, 311

U.S. government and, 105

in Virginia, 248–49, 269–70

Texas, 10, 88, 317

Thayer, Eli

Brown belittled by, 336n38

Kansas free-state crusade, 237

Kansas migration sponsor, 206

New England Emigrant Aid Society, 10, 206

Pottawatomie massacre, 349–50n6

weapons provided by, 206–7

Thompson, Dauphin, 288, 296, 300, 302, 305

Thompson, Henry (son-in-law)

employed by Weiner, 134

at Harpers Ferry, 241, 285–86

Harpers Ferry weapons and, 88

migration to Kansas, 89

Pottawatomie massacre, 108, 128–29, 131–34, 139, 199, 362n13

rescripting, 115

Ruth Brown married to, 47

Ruth’s mental illness and, 161

Thompson, Ruth Brown. See Brown, Ruth (daughter)

Thompson, Will, 285, 289, 334n17

Thoreau, Henry David, 333n7

Throckmorton, W. W., 262–66, 272–74

Tidd, Charles Plummer

Chatham convention and, 224

Harpers Ferry escape, 257

Harpers Ferry raid, 260, 266, 268, 271, 417n8

on mutiny prior to raid, 224

Tilden, Daniel, 147, 372n8

To Purge This Land with Blood (Oates), 13–14

TopekaKansas

free-state constitution, 98

free-state legislature, 11, 77–78, 83, 102, 104–6, 110, 112, 358n35

free-state town, 10, 96

See also LawrenceKansas

TorringtonOhio, 21, 58

Toussaint L’Ouverture, F. D., 235, 280, 330n17

Townsley, John

as Brown and sons’ driver, 11, 74, 79, 128–29

on Brown’s Pottawatomie motivation, 135

confession, 74, 77, 115, 127, 130, 134–35, 349n6

Pottawatomie massacre, 118–19, 124, 130–31, 134–35, 366n60, 366n62

Pottawatomie victims located by, 74

standing watch, 130

treason

Brown hanged for, 7, 13, 21, 316

Brown rejecting, 248, 318

grand jury hearing, 367n74

indictment for, 13

Kansas free state and, 77, 105–7, 159

U.S. forces and, 296

against Virginia, 371n3

Treatise on the Medical Jurisprudence of Insanity (Ray), 171–72

trial

Brown’s appeal to Northerners during, 312, 316–18, 326

Brown’s speech at sentencing, 314–15, 318

of Edwin Coppoc, 292, 312, 314

indictment, 312, 315–16

insanity defense, 145–47

mythical aspects, 6, 330n7

as pulpit, 306

of Shields Green, 312

of Stevens, 312

See also clemency

Tribune (New York) (Greeley, ed.), 204–5, 212, 218

Tubman, Harriet, 7, 54, 215, 240–41, 398n49

Turner, George W., 289

Turner, Nat, 280, 330n17, 418n21

underground railroad

Brown’s plans for, 218, 239

Chatham as terminus, 213

Chatham convention and, 398n50

Douglass and, 402n27

Garnet and, 402–3n31

HudsonOhio and, 66, 346–47n68

Still and, 251, 402–3n31

Subterranean Passage Way as, 175, 236, 311

Tubman and, 7

Watson and, 251

United States League of Gileadites, 135

Unseld, John, 252, 254

U.S. armed forces

Brown’s underestimation of, 248

at Harpers Ferry, 2, 5–6, 248–49, 277–78, 296–304, 311

in Kansas, 99, 208–9, 211

U.S. government

Border Ruffians and, 77–78

Brown clan in Kansas and, 105

Brown pursued by, 142

contempt for, 214, 248

failings of, 214

Harpers Ferry as attack on, 231

Kansas proslavery government supported by, 111

misperception of, 170

mistrust of, 11–12

overthrow of, 248, 309

proslavery policies of, 11–12, 63, 138, 167

slave liberation and, 228

terror, 105

See also Pierce, Franklin

Villard, Oswald Garrison

on Brown’s Kansas motivation, 85

on Brown’s papers, 217

on Harpers Ferry final attack, 303

John Brown, 1800-1859: A Biography Fifty Years After, 296

on offenses against the Brown women, 363–64n42

on Pottawatomie massacre, 121, 129–30, 360n68

William Lloyd Garrison and, 121

“Vindication of the Invasion, Etc.” (Brown), 216–18

Virginians

Brown viewed by, 247

Brown’s men viewed by, 310–11

Brown’s papers and, 218–19

Brown’s rules of engagement and, 318

Civil War boldness of, 295

Harpers Ferry and, 221, 315

insurrection’s dangers seen by, 317

interrogating Brown, 6

Lincoln and, 247

militia, 249

Old Dominion, 248

suppressing information, 268–69

Virginius Island, 1, 268, 283

volunteers. See Harpers Ferry raid, recruits

Wager house

Aaron Stevens lying wounded in, 292

breakfast for prisoners ordered, 273, 284

firing positions taken in, 285

Higgins’s escape to, 262

indicated on map, 276

photo, 263

Will Thompson lying wounded in, 289

Wakarusa settlement, 79, 99–101, 133, 237

Wakarusa War, 11, 98–106, 120, 208

Walker, David, 228

Walker, William, 246–47

warfare conventions/rules, 310–11

Warren, Robert Penn, 26

WashingtonD.C., 169, 258

Washington, Lewis

Brown capturing, 266–68

Brown’s forces estimated by, 280

Brown’s motives reported by, 267

Brown’s treatment of, 293

final attack and, 300–302, 305

Jim and, 287

personal property, 266–77, 293, 302, 310, 414n91

photo, 267

Shields Green and, 266

slaves of, 269–71, 274, 279, 287, 297, 415n104

Watson, Harry, 251

Wattles, Augustus, 89, 209, 211

weapons

Brown brothers’, in Kansas, 9–10, 12, 87–89, 96, 99

Brown obtaining, in Massachusetts, 206

Brown’s, at Harpers Ferry, 315

Brown’s, causing alarm, 239

Hayden purchasing, 255–56

Kennedy farm, 186

National Kansas Committee, 237

Secret Six providing, 247

See also Harpers Ferry armory; Harpers Ferry arsenal; Harpers Ferry motivation; Harpers Ferry weapons; pikes; Sharps rifles

Weekly Herald (Leavenworth), 107, 356n3

Weiner, Theodore

Henry Thompson employed by, 134

at Pottawattamie massacre, 79, 128–30, 134, 365n51, 365n53

revenge sought by, 119

store burned, 127, 138

Weisberger, Bernard, 204

Western Reserve College, 66, 86

Western ReserveOhio, 24, 39–40, 55, 65–66, 86

Whelan, Daniel, 261, 268, 280

White, Martin, 107, 134

Wilkinson, Allen

aggression alleged, 125, 138

Cato court officer, 110

Morse and, 121–22, 125

motives for murder of, 114, 118–22

murder of, 79, 119, 134, 139, 365n51, 365n53

proximity to victim’s cabins, 139

Shawnee legislature member, 79

Weiner’s store burned by, 127

Wilkinson, Louis Jane, 136

Williams, Charles, 273

Williams, Henry H., 362n17

Williams, William Addison, 204, 261

Winchester volunteers, 291, 296

winter of 1856 (Kansas territory), 96–98, 113, 141

Wise, Henry

arrest warrants issued by, 218

Brown as martyr and, 317, 319

Brown characterized by, 247, 315, 409n15

Brown interrogated by, 118, 186–88, 277–78, 313, 314

Brown’s boasts to, 169–70, 317

Brown’s death sentence and, 147, 170

Brown’s papers and, 218

Brown’s truthfulness and, 318

on Cook, 257–58, 413n68

on the 1860 elections, 170

fugitive slaves sought by, 274

Harpers Ferry attack, informed of, 265, 275

on Harpers Ferry slaves, 269–70

Northerners’ ridicule of, 316

plans to kidnap, 408n101

Provisional Constitution urged on, 316

reward offered for Brown’s capture, 257

on slaves’ Harpers Ferry actions, 269

Virginia’s humiliation and, 315

Woodward, C. Vann, 17, 147–48, 152, 232