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INTERNATIONAL STUDIES INDEX SAMPLE   (RETURN TO MAIN INDEX SAMPLE MENU)

 

Democracies in DangerDemocratic Transition and Consolidation
Alfred C. Stepan, editor
© 2009 The Johns Hopkins University Press
Reproduced by permission of the publisher.

(Run-In Style)

Illustrations are indicated by page numbers in italics.

Agüero, Felipe, 7, 59–73, 171n14, 172

Agüero, Maria Elena, vii, 39

Alegría, Diáz, 80

Alfonsín, Raúl, 105–7, 117, 167n12

Allesandri, Jorge, 167n12

American Depositary Receipts, 149

Anderson, Benedict, 22

Argentina, 3, 67, 100, 118, 146, 162n26, 162n32, 167n12

Aristide, Jean-Bertrand, 101, 118

associational civil engagement, 24–26

Atocha train bombing. See Spain, Madrid terrorist attack

Australia, 42

authoritarian regimes: civil society organizations discouraged in, 39;

 as corporatist, 147–48; democracy vs. popular consultation in, 145;

 ending, 167n12; in Haiti, 118; as Latin American norm, 99;

 of the past, 2, 67–68; populism of, 1; in Russia, 122, 130, 133;

 security forces inherited from, 59–62; security services management in wake of, 67–68, 70;

 in Spain, 77–81, 90; strengthening of, 148; U.S. support of, 100–102

 

Balaguer, Joaquín, 102, 118

Balkans, 5

Barcelona Report, 160n9

Basque terrorism. See Spain, ETA terrorist attacks

Belarus, 132

Berman, Sheri, 4

BIS (Brigade for Social Investigation), 85

BJP (Bharatiya Janata Party), 33

Blanco, Carrero, 85

Bloc Québécois, 158n11

Bolivia, 67, 100–101, 103, 114–18, 120, 169n20

Brazil: abertura in, 151n6; and Cardoso, vii, 14; and Collor de Mello, 104, 118;

 as corporative regime, 146; democratic institutions in, 148–49;

 intelligence service reorganization, 71; military autonomy in, 62, 162n22;

 as monarchy, 112; police corruption in, 67; police violence in, 69;

 presidentialism in, 3, 112, 141; transition to democracy, 4

“The Breakdown of Authoritarian Regimes” (Dix), 2

Bucaram, Abdala, 103, 118

Buddhism/Buddhists, 28, 34, 151n5

Burundi, 62–63

Bush, George W., 88

 

Caldera, Rafael, 167n12

Campbell, Kim, vii

Canada: Aboriginal populations of, 42–44, 48–49; civic nationalism in, 5;

 diversity management in, 41, 51, 55; and France, 48; immigrant societies in, 43–44, 47;

 intelligence review committee of, 71–72; minority rights protection in, 44, 50–51, 55–56;

 multiculturalism of, 42; as multi-unit federation, 49–50; political parties of, 45;

 and Quebec independence, 5, 41–56; and the Rest of Canada, 5, 42–48, 53, 55;

 security principles adopted by, 87; Supreme Court of, 5–6, 42, 55, 158n23, 158n24

Canadian Security Intelligence Review Committee, 71–72

Cardoso, Fernando Henrique, vii, 8, 14, 137–150, 171n14, 173

Castro, Fidel, 100

Catholic Church/Catholics, 34, 48, 103

CESID (Centro Superior de Información de la Defensa), 85–86

Chávez, Hugo, 104

Chechnya, 5, 122

Chernomyrdin, Viktor, 128–29

Chile, 3, 62–63, 71, 141, 167n12

Chinese, 28, 34, 36

Chirac, Jacques, 136

Christianity/Christians, 28, 30

citizen-oriented security forces, 8–9

citizens’ rights, 83

civic/communal engagement, 24–27, 31

civic nationalism, 5, 47–48

Civil Guard. See Spain, Civil Guard

civilian democratic leadership, 8–9

“Civil society, Islam, and Ethnocommunal Conflict” (Varshney), 17–40

civil war, 20, 21, 27–28

Club of Madrid, vi–viii, 1–3, 9, 11, 153–54, 153n17, 169, 174–75

CNI (Centro Nacional de Inteligencia), 86, 93

Colley, Linda, 22

Collor de Mello, Fernando, 104, 118

Colombia, 99, 141, 168n18

Colton, Timothy J., 11, 13, 121–135, 138, 174

Communism, 121

Communist Party, 77–78, 85, 127

Confucianism, 28

consociationalism, 40

consolidated majority government, 125, 125, 152n14

corporativism, 39, 138, 146–150, 156–57n42

Costa Rica, 99

crime, 60, 66–70, 75, 82, 87, 91–93

Croatia, 13, 153n17

Cuba, 99, 100, 168n18

Cubas, Raúl, 118

Czech Republic, 14, 134

 

Dal, Bajrang, 38–39

de Gaulle, Charles, 132

Designing Social Inquiry (King, Keohane, Verba), 23

divided majority government, 125, 125

divided minority government, 125–28, 134, 152n14

divided societies, 55

Dix, Robert, 2

Domínguez, Jorge, vii

Dominican Republic, 102, 118, 167n12

drug-trafficking, 1–3, 6, 90. See also crime

 

Ecuador, 63, 101–3, 118, 119

El Salvador, 64–65, 67

English-Canadian nationalism, 48

Estonia, 14, 134

ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna). See Spain, ETA terrorist attacks

Ethnic Conflict and Civic Life (Varshney), 19–20

ethnocommunal conflicts, 17–27, 32–33, 38–40

European Council, 92, 134

European Ministries of Home Affairs, 91–92

European Security Strategy, 87

European Union (EU), 14, 76, 87–88, 91–92, 134–35, 160n9, 171n20

everyday civil engagement, 24–26

executive government branches, 9, 170–71n13

 

Featon, James, 32

federalism, 5, 17, 44–45, 47, 49–51, 122, 158n13

Federalist Papers, 138

Fernández, Leonel, 167n12

fires (riots), 25–27, 27, 32, 37, 39

France: ballotage electoral system in, 113; and Canada, 48;

 Constitutional reform in, 135; and European Gendarmerie Force, 91;

 opposition to, as unifying force, 22; presidential powers in, 14;

 Socialist party in, 136; Third and Fourth Republics of, 112

France, Fifth Republic: de Gaulle’s structured party of, 132;

 Jospin’s criticism of, 144; presidential powers in, 126, 129–130, 171n14;

 as semi-presidentialism model, 3, 9, 11, 13, 14, 112, 126, 135–36

Franco, Francisco, 77, 78–79, 85

Freedom House, 132

French Revolution, 138

Front du Libération du Quebec, 45–46

Fujimori, Alberto, 67, 101–3, 113–14, 119

Fundación Milenio, 113–18, 168–69n19

Fundación para las Relaciones Internacionales y el Diálogo Exterior (FRIDE), viii

Furnivall, J. S., 35

 

Gaidar, Yegor, 128–29

GAL (Grupos Antiterroristas de Liberación ), 94

Garcia, Alan, 167n12

Gellner, Ernest, 23

Ghana, 63

Global Facilitation Network for Security Sector Reform, 7

globalization, 53, 77, 87–95, 148, 163

González, Felipe, 77

Gorbachev, Mikhail, 122–23, 127, 131

Great Britain, 22, 47–49, 94

Guantánamo Bay, 6–7, 95

Guatemala, 100, 102, 112–18

Gujarat (India), 32–33, 38–39

Guterrez, Antonio, 167n16

Gutierrez, Lucio, 101, 103, 118

 

Haiti, 99, 100, 101, 107, 118

Hegel, Georg, 145

Heymann, Philip, 72

Hidalgo, Diego, viii

Hindu-Muslim riots, 19–20, 24–26, 32–33, 37–39

Hindus, 4, 28, 34, 38, 151n5, 155n18

Holland, 91

human rights, 63–64, 68, 73

Hungary, 14, 134

 

Imagined Communities (Anderson), 22

Indépendantiste Parti Québécois (PQ), 42, 47

India, 17, 20, 28, 30–32, 37–38, 64, 67. See also Hindu-Muslim riots

Indian hypothesis, 31–33

Indonesia, 4, 17, 20, 27–31, 63, 177

industrialization, 23

integrated civic societies, 31, 34, 37–40

intelligence services, 2–3, 6–9, 59–61, 65, 70–74, 85–86, 92–95

intercommunal civic engagement, 27, 31

international crime. See crime

International Monetary Fund (IMF), 103–4

International Sociological Association, vii

Iraq Study Group Report, 72

Islam, 2, 17–18, 28–31, 40, 155n18. See also Muslims

Islamic terrorism, 29–31, 75, 87, 91–93

Italy, 91, 112

 

Japan, 137

Jefferson, Thomas, 138–39

Jospin, Lionel, 136, 144

Juan Carlos I (king), 77

Juárez, Benito, 111–12

 

Kandy (Sri Lanka), 27, 33–34

Keohane, Robert, 23

Khasbulatov, Ruslan, 128–29

Khodorkovsky, Mikhail, 132

King, Gary, 23

Kuala Lampur (Malaysia), 34–35

Kucan, Milan, 153n17

Kwasniewski, Aleksander, 135, 153n17

 

Lagos, Ricardo, 62

Laitin, David, 32

Landsbergis, Vytautas, 153n17

Latin America: authoritarian regimes as norm in, 99;

 constitutional engineering in, 168n18; corporativism in, 39, 156–57n42;

 and democracy, 100–101; military autonomy in, 62–67;

 presidents in, 99–119, 139–145, 168n18; Third Wave Democracies in, 146;

 and U.S. Southern Command, 74

Latvia, 14, 134

Law and Order Act, 83

Lijphart, Arend, 12, 167–68n17, 167n16

Linz, Juan J., viii, 10–11, 114

Lithuania, 13–14, 134, 153n17

Llosa, Mario Vargas, 113–14

Luckham, Robin, 64

 

Mahud, Jamil, 102–3, 118

Malaysia, 2, 4, 17, 27–28, 31, 34–36, 40, 155n18

Manglano, Emilio Alonso, 85

Manoilescu, Mihail, 146

March 11, 2004 Madrid terrorist attack. See Spain, Madrid terrorist attack

market forces, 35, 145–46, 148–49

market reforms, 64, 129, 132

Medvedev, Dmitrii, 133

Mejia, Hipólito, 167n12

Mellado, Gutiérrez, 80, 85

Menem, Carlos, 118, 167n12

Mesi, Stjepan, 153n17

Mexico, 62, 67, 99, 112, 141, 146

Milenio. See Fundación Milenio

military forces: autonomy of, 61–67, 76, 162n22; civilian control of, 70–71;

 democracy threatened by, 59, 76; Inter-American policy controlled by, 66;

 international relations, 65–66; management of, 2–3, 6–9, 70–74;

 manipulation of government forces in U.S., 64; new missions of, 87–90;

 in nondemocratic regimes, 6; and police functions, 60, 64, 66; and state reform, 64;

 and terrorism, 87, 94–95;

 vs. intelligence services, 70–71; vs. police in Argentina, 67; vs. presidents in Latin America, 100

military justice, 63–64

military-run businesses, 63, 161n18

Mitterand, François, 126

mohalla samitis (Indian neighborhood committees), 37–38

Montesquieu, Baron de, 138

Morales, Evo, 116–17

Muhhamadiya, 30–31

Muslim-Christian relations, 29–30

Muslims, 4, 28, 151n5, 155n18. See also Hindu-Muslim riots; Islam

 

narco-trafficking, 1–3, 6, 90. See also Crime

nationalism, 3, 5, 19, 22–23, 38, 45–48, 54

national police forces, 66, 82–84, 90

NATO, 66, 86, 88

Navarro, Arias, 78

Negombo (Sri Lanka), 27, 34

“The New ‘Double Challenge’”: (Agüero), 7

New Order (Indonesia), 31

New York Stock Exchange, 149

New Zealand, 42

Niger, 62–63

Nigeria, 2, 4, 5, 63, 177

Nino, Carlos, 10–11, 168

Northern Ireland, 20

NU (Nahdltul Ulama), 30–31

 

Orange Revolution (Ukraine), 134

Organic State Security Forces Act (LOFCS), 83

organized crime, 60, 70, 87, 90–95

Ottawa, 50

Ousselghem, Gilles de Kerchove, 92

 

Pakistan, 62, 155n18

Palmer, David Scott, 99

Paraguay, 100, 118

parliamentarianism, 3, 9, 11–12, 121, 141, 152n11

parliamentarism, 3, 99–113. See also semi-presidentialism

parliamentarized semi-presidentialism, 13

PAS (Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party), 29

Pérez, Carlos Andres, 104, 118, 167n12

Perón, Juan, 146

Peru: and Alan Garcia, 167n12; armed forces funding in, 63;

 and Fujimori, 67, 101–3, 113–14, 119; internal police controls in, 69;

 police corruption in, 67; prime ministries in, 168n18;

 security services nationalized, 71; terrorism in, 101–2

Philippines, 63, 162n26

Pita de Vega, Castillo-Alvarez, 77

Poland, 4, 13–14, 134–36, 137

police forces: accountability issues of, 66–70; and citizens in democracies, 75;

 civil rights shared by members of, 83; corruption in, 66–67, 162n32;

 and declining support for democracy, 6; management of, 2–3, 6–9, 59–61, 64–70, 73;

 and military functions, 60, 64, 66; in nondemocratic regimes, 6;

 organization of, 68–69; as a public service, 90–93; recruitment for, 69;

 in Spain, 81–84; training of, 69; transparency issues within, 69–70;

 vs. military forces in Argentina, 67

Policía Armada y Guarda Civil (Civil Guard), 81

Politico-Social Brigade, 81

Portugal, 11, 13, 91, 112–13, 134–36, 143–44, 153n17

presidentialism, 3, 7, 9–12, 99–119, 121–22, 152n11, 167n12.

See also semi-presidentialism; super-presidential semi-presidentialism

presidents, failed, 101–11

Primakov, Yevgenii, 126

primordialism, 21

prison systems, 69–70

Protestantism, 22

Putin, Vladimir, 122, 130–33, 160n3

Putnam, Robert, 4, 24

 

Quebec, 5, 41–56. See also Canada

Quebec Act, 158n16

quotidian civil engagement, 24–26

 

racial conflicts, 3, 20, 36

racial polarization, 36

racial segregation, 35

religiosity/religion, 2–3, 26–27, 40, 138

rendition, 72

riots, 4, 19–21, 24–28, 31–34, 37–39

Rúa, Fernando de la, 118

Rukun Tetangga (Malayan neighborhood committees), 35–36

Rumyantsev, Oleg, 123, 129

Russia, 11–13, 121–136, 138, 144, 169–170n4, 170n7, 171n14

Rustow, Dankwart A., 104–5

 

Sánchez de Lozada, Gonzalo, 10–11, 118

Sanguinetti, Julio María, 167n12

Schmitter, Philippe, 146–47

Scotland, 22

SECED (Centro Superior de Información de la Defensa), 85

secession, 2, 4–5, 41–56, 122

security forces/services. See intelligence services; military forces; police forces

Security Sector Reform, 88, 152n11, 160n8

segregated civil societies, 31, 34–38

semi-presidentialism, 11–14, 112, 116, 121–135, 125, 152n11, 169n1.

 See also France, Fifth Republic; parliamentarism; parliamentarized semi-presidentialism;

 presidentialism; super-presidential semi-presidentialism

September 11, 2001 New York terrorist attack, 77, 91, 93

Serra, Narcís, 7–8, 75–94, 173

Serrano, Jorge, 102, 114, 118

shariat (Islamic law), 155n18

Shining Path terrorist movement, 101–2

Silva, Anibal Cavaco, 153n18

Simeon, Richard, 4–5, 41–56, 175

Sinhalese, 27, 28, 34

Skach, Cindy, 11, 13, 121–135, 138, 175–76

Slovakia, 14, 134

Slovenia, 13–14, 134, 153n17, 153n18

Soares, Mário, 153n17

Socialist governments, 77, 79, 84

South Africa, 31, 64–65, 69–71

South America. See Latin America

Spain: armed forces of, 77–81; authoritarian regimes in, 77–81, 90;

 BIS in, 85; CESID in, 85–86; Civil Guard of, 66, 81, 83–84, 86, 90–91, 93;

 CNI in, 86, 93; Communist Party in, 77–78; Constitution of 1978, 78–79, 82–83, 90;

 ETA terrorist attacks in, 81, 85, 88, 90, 94; executive use of security forces in, 76, 80;

 Foreign Affairs Ministry of, 91, 93; GAL in, 94; intelligence services in, 84–86, 92–95;

 Interior Ministry of, 83–84, 86, 93; and international military relations, 66;

 Islamic terrorism in, 75; Madrid terrorist attack (March 11, 2004), 91, 93, 151n7;

 military forces in, 87–89, 90–92; police forces in, 81–84, 90–93;

 reactionary forces in, 144; rights of citizens in, 83; security forces controlled in,

 64–65, 77–84, 92–95; Socialist government of, 77, 79, 84;

 and Third Wave Democracies, 62, 65; UCD of, 78; UMD of, 78

sparks leading to conflict, 25–27, 27, 32, 39, 103

Sri Lanka, 2, 5, 17, 27–28, 31, 33–34, 151n5, 156n28

state intervention in ethnocommunal violence, 32–33, 38–40

Stepan, Alfred, 1–14, 137–38, 176

Study Group on Europe’s Security Capabilities, 160n9

Suárez, Adolfo, 77, 80, 85

Suazo, Hermán Siles, 101, 103, 120

Suharto (Indonesian president), 31

suicide bombings, 28

super-presidential semi-presidentialism, 13

 

Tamils, 27–28, 33–34

Tarradellas, Josep, 85

terrorism: and common criminals, 92–93; democracies threatened by, 1–3, 6, 60;

 EU strategies against, 87, 91–92; and globalization, 90;

 and intelligence services, 92–95; Islamic, 29–31, 75, 87, 91–93;

 and military forces, 87, 94–95; in Peru, 101–2;

 in Spain, 75, 81, 83, 85–86, 88, 92–94, 104; in the U.S., 77, 91–93

Thailand, 62–63

Third Wave Democracies: and Cardoso, vii; general assemblies of, 1;

 in Latin America, 146; pessimism regarding, 144;

 and political institutions, 137; and semi-presidentialism, 11;

 and Spain, 62, 65; transition processes among, 76

Tocqueville, Alexis de, 138, 141

Tom, Henry, viii

torture, 68, 72

Trudeau, Pierre, 43

Tudjman, Franjo, 153n17

Turkmenistan, 132

 

UCD (Unión de Centro), 78

Ukraine, 133

UMD (Unión Militar Democrática), 78

UMNO (United Malays National Organization), 29

United Kingdom, 9, 64. See also Great Britain

United Nations, 66, 87–88, 91

United States: authoritarian regimes supported by, 100–102; Constitution of, 114;

 founding principles of, 138–39, 145; intelligence service justifying party politics in, 94;

 military control of Inter-American policy, 66; military manipulation of government forces in, 64;

 national counterterrorism strategy of, 92; as presidentialism model, 9, 121;

 racial segregation in, 31–32; racial violence in, 20; religious civic spaces in, 31–32

United States Southern Command, 66, 74

Uruguay, 141, 146, 167n12, 168n18

Uzbekistan, 132

 

Valenzuela, Arturo, 10–11, 99–119, 138, 143, 176

Varshney, Ashutosh, 4–5, 17–40, 137, 176–77

Venezuela, 99, 104, 118, 167n12, 168n18

Verba, Sidney, 23

VHP (Vishva Hindu Parishad), 33

Vries, Gris de, 91–92

 

Wahid, Abdurrahman, 30

Weimar Germany, 4, 129–130, 171n14

Workers Party (PT), 149

 

Yakovlev, Alexander, 170n11

Yale University, 114

Yeltsin, Boris, 13, 122–24, 127–134, 170n7

Yugoslavia, 2, 39

Yushchenko, Viktor, 134

 

Zuazo, Hermán Siles. See Suazo, Hermán Siles