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Reframing the New Topographics

Greg Foster-Rice & John Rohrbach, editors

© 2010 Center for American Places at Columbia College

Reproduced by permission of the publisher.

(Indented Style)

 

Bold italic page numbers indicate photographs or movie stills.  Works by the New Topographics photographers and those by Dan Graham, Ed Ruscha, and Robert Smithson are listed under each photographer's name.

 

Abel, Bess, 178n37

Accommodating Nature exhibit, 6

actualités (French documentary footage), 115

Adams, Ansel

as art photographer, 80–81

Clearing Winter Storm, Yosemite ValleyCalifornia, 8, 18, 24–25, 58, 58

craftsmanship of, 80–81

landscape sublimity in photos by, 4, 24–25, 58–59, 87, 94

light in photos by, 18

and the New Topographics, xvii, xxiii

photographers influenced by, 6

and Robert Adams, xvii, 3–4, 13, 59, 62

as Sierra Club photographer, 14, 17

and This is the American Earth, 17–18, 20, 101

West Coast aesthetic defined by, 1

and the wilderness aesthetic, 58–59

Adams, Robert

academic background of, 24, 107–108

aerial views by, 94, 98, 102–103

and Ansel Adams, xvii, 3–4, 13, 59, 62

The Architecture and Art of Early Hispanic Colorado, 166n28

artistic goals of, 42

and automobile culture, 21, 26, 26–28, 30–31, 33, 36–37

awards/grants received by, 160n9, 173n3

Baltz on, 40–41, 48–49, 50, 62, 112

cameras used by, 10

The Center of Denver, Four Miles Distant, 35, 36

cinematic influences on, xxiv, 107–108, 112, 114, 119, 181–182n22

Colfax AvenueLakewoodColorado26, 26–27

Colorado Springs, Colorado, xxiv, 37, 121–124, 122, 131–137, 161n30

conceptual elements in, 127–128

critical reactions to, 13, 15, 39, 48, 124–125, 166n28, 171n38

Denver: A Photographic Survey of the Metropolitan Area, 36–37, 39, 132–133

ecological ambivalence in, 50, 115

and ecological citizenship, 13–17, 22–24, 30, 37, 41–43

and English studies, 107–108

as environmental critic, xxi, 15–17, 23, 37–42, 53, 59–60, 137

environments dehumanized in photos by, 24–27, 119

formalism in, 6, 126, 131–133

From the Missouri West, 9–10

influences on, 10, 137, 186n40

on landscape transformation, 76

on light, xxiv, 4, 24–25, 76, 114

light in photos by, xxiv, 4–5, 8, 24–28, 37, 62, 114, 131–135, 186n37

LongmontColorado, 39–41, 40

and Minimalism, 45

Missouri RiverClay CountySouth Dakota3, 3–4

mobile homes in the photos of, 13, 53, 54, 56, 62, 66, 102–103, 125

Mobile Homes, Jefferson CountyColorado, 53, 54, 56, 66, 102–103

neutrality issues, 87, 112, 121, 124–127, 132–137, 186–187n43

in The New Topographics exhibit, xvi–xvii, 66, 90, 161n30

The New West (see The New West: Landscapes Along the Front Range)

Newly Completed Tract House, Colorado SpringsColorado, 8, 9

Newly Occupied Tract Houses, Colorado SpringsColorado25, 25–26

vs. Nicholas Nixon, 38

Our Lives and Our Children, 112

passive framing by, 66

and public spaces privatized, 36–41, 134–135

religious background of, 24, 166n27

vs. Shore, 34–35

style/stylelessness issues, xviii

Subdivision street, South Denver, Colorado, 28, 28

Summer Nights, 168n47

tract houses/suburbs (discussed), xvii, xxiv, 4, 8, 13, 24–28, 37–41, 53–54, 56–57, 121–125, 131–137, 186n37

tract houses/suburbs (photos), 9252628364054

as Urban Topographer, 2

White Churches of the Plains, 166n28

Adorno, Theodor, xxiv–xxv, 15, 123, 134–135

aerial photography/views

 See also Adams, Robert; Deal, Joe; Gohlke, Frank; Nixon, Nicholas; Ruscha, Ed

abstraction in, 151

aerial vision, 94–98

Airborne Camera exhibit, 95, 98–99

Beaumont Newhall’s contributions to, xxiii, 95

Berger’s use of, 157

Boston from a Balloon (Black), 96, 96

and the environment, 88–89, 98, 100, 104–105

Foundations and Slabs, LakewoodCalifornia (Garnett), 100, 100

of Garnett, xxiii, 17–18, 20, 25, 95, 97, 99–101, 100

of Lawrence105, 105

of Nadar, 95

and the New Topographics, xxiii, 94–104, 151

strategies of, 101–104

style/stylelessness issues, 95, 97, 103

Sunset at 41,000 feet, Mount McKinleyAlaska (Washburn), 98, 99

vs. traditional landscape photography, 88, 94–97

of Washburn, xxiii, 95, 97–99, 99, 101, 104

aesthetic formalism, 46, 57–59, 64, 68

The Affluent Society (Galbraith), 20

Afterimage (Visual Studies Workshop periodical), xx

Ain, Gregory, 123, 132

Airborne Camera: The World from the Air and Outer Space exhibit, 95, 98–99

Alajalov, Constantin, 129, 130

Albuquerque (NM). See Deal, Joe

Aletti, Vince, 115

Algerian War, 111

Alloway, Lawrence, 64

Alphaville (Godard), 107, 109, 110

Altered Landscapes (Pfahl), 145

The American Aesthetic (Owing), 99

American Graffiti (Lucas), 139

Americanization, 109–111, 136–137

America’s Most Wanted (Komar & Melamid), 148

Anderson, Nancy, 55

Antonioni, Michelangelo, xxiii–xxiv, 107–111, 109111, 113–114, 118–119

Apocalypse Now (Coppola), 139

Approaching Nowhere (Brouws), 149

Arab oil shock, 89

Arbus, Diane, 94, 118, 161n28

Arcadian Landscapes (Manual: Hill & Bloom), 155

“The Arcadian Shepherds” (Poussin), 154

architectural drawings/plans, xiii, 88, 91–94, 101, 105

architecture

 See also suburban culture/development; tract houses

in Conceptual Art, 77

landscape architecture, 145

as New Topographics focus, xxii, 24, 31–33, 35, 38, 71, 91–93, 105, 123

and not-architecture, 68

and photoconceptualism, 127–128

Armitage, Shelly, 115

“Art and Objecthood” (Fried), 57

Art in Series exhibit, 47

art in series vs. serial art, 61

Atget, Eugène, 94

Atkinson, Bill, 143

atomic bomb, 56–57

Atomic mushroom cloud rising up during Baker Day test bombing at Bikini AtollMarshall Islands (anonymous), 56

automobility/automobiles

 See also Adams, Robert; Baltz, Lewis; Deal, Joe; Gohlke, Frank; Schott, John

and citizenship conceptions, 167n33

debates on, xxi, 20–21, 31–34

environmental responsibility compromised by, 42

public spaces privatized by, 36–41

in Sinclair, 150

Smith’s anecdote on, xxii, 47–48, 57–59, 66

L’avventura “The Adventure” (Antonioni), 109–110, 113

Baker, George, 68

Baltz, Lewis

 See also suburban culture/development

Alton Road at Murphy Road looking toward Newport Center31

and architectural plans, 92

automobile landscapes in photos by, xvii, 30–33

awards/grants received by, 160n9

camera/film used by, 67–68, 81

cinematic influences on, xxii–xxiii, 107–109, 112, 114, 119

craftsmanship of, 81

critical reactions understood by, 9

DATAR, employed by, 182–183n31

as environmental critic, xxi, 15–16, 34–35, 42, 50–51, 92, 112

environments dehumanized in photos by, 119

Fluorescent Tube10, 11

Foundation Construction, Many Warehouses, 2892 Kelvin, Irvine91, 91–92

Gohlke on, 76

grids in photos by, xx

industrial parks in photos by, xvi, 10, 30, 35, 51, 66, 72, 90, 114, 167n36

influences on, 181n10

and Jenkins, xv–xviii

loss and reclamation in, 151–152

and Minimalism, 45

on nature, 11–12

neutrality issues, 6–9, 87, 112, 121, 124

Nevada, 10–11

The New Industrial Parks near Irvine California, xvi, 10, 72, 90, 114

in the New Topographics exhibit, xv–xvi, 1, 66, 90

Park City, 6–7, 7152, 152

Park Meadows, Subdivision 2, Lot 1, looking Northwest across Lucky John Drive toward Quarry Mountain152, 152

“The Power Trilogy”, 112

Prospector VillageLot 111, Looking Northwest7, 7–8

on Robert Adams, 40–41, 48–50, 62, 112

Ruscha’s influence on, 76

and Smithson, 152

South Wall, Mazda Motors, 2121 East Main StreetIrvine92, 92

style/stylelessness issues, xviii, 124

Total Eclipse August 1990, 107

and tract houses, xv, 48

Tract Houses, 114

and traditional landscape photography, 10

Barthes, Roland, 60

Batchen, Geoffrey, 190n19

Bauhaus photographers, 94

Becher, Bernd and Hilla

anthropological constructs of, 93–94

awards/grants received by, 160n9

cameras used by, 62

coal industry structures in photos by, xvi–xvii, 51, 71, 119

and Conceptual Art, 173n4, 183n41

critical reaction to, 173n4

and Deal, 65

grids in photos by, 62, 65–66, 67, 90, 93–94

Harry E. Colliery Coal-Breaker, Wilkes-BarrePennsylvania63, 94

Hilla as sole woman New Topographics artist, 89, 159n8

Hilla’s influence on Shore, xvi

light in photos by, 93–94

and Minimalism, 45

and Nazi Germany, 112

neutrality issues, 87, 93

in the New Topographics exhibit, xvi–xvii, 1, 90, 93–94, 112

ruined landscapes in photos by, 119

scientific impetus of, 93–94

seriality in photos by, 62–63, 102

and Smithson, 183n41

typologies in photos by, 54, 62–63, 93–94, 102

Typology of Coal Breakers, 54, 62–63, 63

Bellah, Robert, 42–43

Benjamin, Walter, 51, 53, 131–133, 147

Berger, Alan, 157–158, 192n47

Bergson, Henri, xxiv, 116–117

Bertalanffy, Ludwig von, 46

Black, James Wallace, 95–96, 96

Blaisdell, Gus, 152–153

Blake, Peter, 19–21, 23, 31, 39

“The Blessed State” (Musgrave), 143, 188n8

Bloom, Suzanne, 154–155, 155, 191n39

Bochner, Mel, 64–65, 67–68

Bonaventure Hotel, 145, 189n15

Borges, Jorge Luis, xviii, 67

Boston (MA). See Black, James Wallace; Nixon, Nicholas

Boston from a Balloon (Black), 96, 96

Braverman, Harry, 79–81

Breathless (Godard), 114–115

Bright, Deborah, 45, 123, 133, 168n3, 186–187n43

The Broken Covenant (Bellah), 42

Bronson, William, 136

Brouws, Jeff, 149, 153

Brower, David, 19

Brown, Denise Scott. See Scott Brown, Denise

Buchloh, Benjamin, 121, 126–128, 183–184n1, 185n20

The Builders (Mayer & Thomas), 73

built environments, xv, xxi, xxv, 48, 71, 85, 89, 98, 101, 104, 173n1

built landscapes, xxi–xxii, 78

Bullock, Wynn, 1

Buren, Daniel, 185n20

Burgin, Victor, 125–126

Burn, Ian, 79

Burnett, Christopher, 144, 144

Burtynsky, Edward, 153, 154, 191n35

Bustamante, Jean Marc, 182n31

Cage, John, xviii–xix

cameras. See Adams, Robert; Baltz, Lewis; Becher, Bernd and Hilla; Ruscha, Ed; Shore, Stephen

Canon of the Rio Las Animas (J. B. Jackson), 55

capitalism, 50–51, 53, 79–80, 127–128

Caponigro, Paul, 1, 6

Carson, Rachel, 20, 53, 56, 165n18, 170n22

Cartier-Bresson, Henri, 117

Cavell, Stanley, 113

cinema. See Antonioni, Michelangelo; Godard, Jean-Luc

Cinema 1/Cinema 2 (Deleuze), 108, 182n31

Clean Air Act (1970), 55–56

Clean Water Act (1972), 55–56

Cliffhanger (Stallone), 148

Cohen, Lizabeth, 39

Coke, Van Deren, xv

Cold War, xiv, 50, 111–112, 131, 169n15

 See also post-World War II period

Coleman, James, 68

Colomina, Beatriz, 130–131, 134–135

Comer, Krista, 89

commercial photography overview, 71–85

communism, 130–131

computer virtual landscape construction, 143–158, 189nn9&10, 190n14, 190n19, 190n24, 192n46

Conceptual Art

 See also Graham, Dan; Haacke, Hans; photoconceptualism; Ruscha, Ed; Smithson, Robert

architecture in, 77

and the Bechers, 173n4

Buchloh on, 121, 126–128

Cage’s 4’33” performance, xviii–xix

conceptual formalism, xvii

and concerned photography, 127

vs. early modernism, xix

ideological institutions critiqued by, 185n20

Lee on, 127–128

Muybridge’s influence on, 61, 64

neutrality of, 64, 128

New Topographics artists’ critique of, 161n31

and photography programs, 160n17

vs. Pop Art, 184n6

process in, 64

and real estate photography, 71, 73, 77–81

and systems art, 46

time perspective on, 183–184n1

consumer culture, xvii, 15–20, 22, 31–32, 41, 50, 53

Coplans, John, 61, 75

Coutard, Raoul, 114–115, 181–182n22

craftsmanship, xviii, xxi, 76, 79–81

critical reactions

to Adams’s Denver, 39

to Adams’s The New West, 13, 48, 124–125, 166n28, 171n38

Baltz’s understanding of, 9

by Beaumont Newhall, 13

to the Bechers, 173n4

to Deal’s Albuquerque photos, 30

by Demarais, xx

by Kramer, 173n4

by Murray, 13

to the New Topographics exhibit, xix–xx, 84–85, 140

to the New Topographics outlook, 9, 80

by Ratcliff, xx, 30, 42

recorded, 161n21, 178n27

by Sandeen, 166n28

to Shore, 42

by Szarkowski, 124–125, 171n38

terminologies arising from, 149

Dada art movement, 126

DATAR (Mission Photographique de la DATAR), 182–183n31

Dawn of the Dead (Romero), 41

de Salvo, Donna, 47

Deal, Joe

aerial views by, 35, 94, 98, 102, 114

Albuquerque in photos by, xvi–xvii, 29, 29–30, 54, 72, 90, 102

automobile landscapes in photos by, 29–30

and the Bechers, 65

cinematic influences on, 114

critical reactions recorded by, 161n22, 178n37

detail in photos by, xx

as Eastman House Exhibition Manager, xv

as environmental critic, 30

and Gohlke, xvi

grid elements in the photos of, 102

influence of, 1

landscapes by, 29, 54, 114, 124

and Learning from Las Vegas, 175n21

mapping strategies of, 114

neutrality issues, 64–65, 87, 102, 121, 124, 178n36

in the New Topographics exhibit, xvi, 1, 29, 65–66, 90

optical democracy, 114

and real estate photography, 71–72

ruined landscapes in photos by, 119

vs. Schott, 32

seriality in photos by, 102

style/stylelessness issues, xviii, 65

suburbs/tract houses in photos by, xvi–xvii

and systems art, 65

Untitled View (Albuquerque), 29, 29–30, 102

as Urban Topographer, 2

working methodology of, 124

degraded utopia. See utopia, degraded

Deleuze, Gilles, xxiv, 108, 113, 115–120, 182n31

Demarais, Charles, xx

Dennis, Kelly, 125

Desert Cantos (Misrach), 145

Il deserto rosso (Antonioni), 108–110, 109, 113

deskilling, 79–81

 See also craftsmanship

Destroyed Road & Crater (Goin), 149

detachment, xxiv, 30, 113–115

Dibbets, Jan, 189–190n17

Digital Landfill project (Napier), 153

digital topographics. See computer virtual landscape construction

Dingus, Rick, 146

Double Negative (Heizer), 68

Dr. Strangelove’s America (Henriksen), 112

Drosscape (Berger), 157

Duany, Andres, 129

Duchamp, Marcel, 158

earthwork art, 46, 152, 156–158

Eastman House. See George Eastman House

L’eclisse “The Eclipse” (Antonioni), 107, 110, 111, 118

ecological citizenship, xxi, 13–43, 163n3, 165n18

 See also Adams, Robert; Shore, Stephen; the environment; The New West

Effigy Tumuli (Heizer), 157

The Elegiac Tradition (Manual: Hill & Bloom), 155

Endangered Species Act (1973), 55–56

the environment

 See also Adams, Ansel; Adams, Robert; automobility/automobiles; Baltz, Lewis; built landscapes; Carson, Rachel; Deal, Joe; ecological citizenship; God’s Own Junkyard; Kepes, Gyorgy; loss and reclamation; Sierra Club; Smithson, Robert; suburban culture/development; This is the American EarthThe New West

and aerial photography, 88–89, 98, 100, 104–105

aesthetics of, 17–22, 55, 58

built environments, xv, xxi, xxv, 48, 71, 85, 89, 98, 101, 104

dystopian environment, 120

and earthwork art, 157

and ecocriticism, 171n31

end of nature process, 170n22

environmental movements, xix, xxii, 22, 53, 148

J.B. Jackson on, 136–137

and the New Topographics period, xv, 71, 104, 113

the New Topographics photographers (overview), 13–45

postwar alteration of, 16, 128

virtual environments, 140, 145, 149, 153

equivalency-of-differentiation, 64

Equivalents (Stieglitz), 61

Er-rant Arcadia (Manual: Hill & Bloom), 154–155, 155

Evans, Walker, xiii–xiv, 81, 94, 152–153, 177n32

Exhibit Format (Sierra Club), 17

Export, Valie, 59

f/64 movement, 58

Fascist Era, 111

FHA (U.S. Federal Housing Administration), 129

fine-art photography, 61, 64, 71, 80–81, 100, 124, 128, 160n17

Flavin, Dan, 68

Fontcuberta, Joan, 145–148, 147, 190n19

Foucault, Michel, 90

Foundations and Slabs, LakewoodCalifornia (Garnett), 100, 100

4’33” (Cage performance piece), xviii–xix

Fox, William L., 90

The Fractal Geometry of Nature (Mandelbrot), 142–143

framing, 58, 66, 74, 84, 88, 102, 104, 113, 114, 132

Frank, Robert, xiii–xiv, 80, 117

Frankfurt School, 15, 41

Fried, Michael, 57–60

Friedlander, Lee, 80, 118

Friedrich, Caspar David, 146

Fry, Edward, 78

Gaddis, John Lewis, 169n15

“Gaea Zoom” (Musgrave), 143

Galbraith, John Kenneth, 20, 39

Galton, Francis, 148

Garnett, William, xxiii, 17–18, 20, 25, 30, 95, 97–103, 100

Garreau, Joel, 30

General System Theory (Bertalanffy), 46

George Eastman House, xiii, xv–xvi, xxiii, 1, 84–85, 95, 100, 114, 117, 159n1

Giacomelli, Mario, 101

Godard, Jean-Luc, xxiii–xxiv, 107–111, 113–115, 118–120

God’s Own Junkyard (Blake), 19–23, 31

Gohlke, Frank

aerial views by, 94, 98, 102–104

automobile dominance in photos by, xvii, 30

awards/grants received by, 160n9

on Baltz, 76

cinematic influences on, xxiv, 108, 111, 119

crossroads themes of, 149

DATAR, employed by, 182–183n31

and Deal, xvi

Grain Elevator and Plowed Field, WellingtonKansas, 5–6, 6

grain elevators in the photos of, xvii, 5–6, 103

Landscape, Minneapolis, 103, 103

Landscape, St. Paul38, 38–39

Measure of Emptiness: Grain Elevators in the American Landscape, 5

neutrality issues, 2–3, 5, 8, 87, 104

in the New Topographics exhibit, xvi–xvii, 1, 72

passive framing by, 65, 113

and private vs. public space, 39

on Ruscha’s craftsmanship, 76

on traditional vs. everyday landscape, 6, 12

as Urban Topographer, 2

Goin, Peter, 149

Goldin, Nan, 162n33

Gowin, Emmett, 151, 177n29

Graham, Dan

cinematic influences on, 107, 110–111

environmental temporalization in, 128

Homes for America77, 77–78, 110–111, 135–136, 181n10, 184n6

image quality of, 81

photographer’s role questioned by, 127

Ruscha’s influence on, 184n6

and snapshot aesthetics, 77

sociopolitical concerns in work of, xxiv, 135

style/stylelessness issues, xxii, 79

The Great Land Hustle (Paulson), 73

The Green Shepherdess (Manual: Hill & Bloom), 155, 155

Greenberg, Clement, 46, 57, 60, 113

grids and groupings, xx, xxiii, 66, 67–68, 90–93

Griffith, D. W., 108

Grundberg, Andy, 45

Guggenheim Memorial Fellowship grants, xvi, 160n9, 173n3

Guggenheim Museum (New York), 78

Gurskey, Andreas, 162n33

Haacke, Hans, xxii, 50, 78–79, 169–170n16, 185n20

Hamilton, Richard, xix

Hanson, David, 151, 155–157, 156, 189n12, 191n41

Haworth-Booth, Mark, 191n35

Heidegger, Martin, 150

Heizer, Michael, 68, 157, 192n42

Henriksen, Margot, 112

Hill, Ed, 154–155, 155, 191n39

Hine, Lewis, 23

Hine, Thomas, 132

Historical Spanish Record of the Conquest, South Side of Inscription Rock, New Mexico (O’Sullivan), 11, 11

Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 95

Holt, Nancy, 157

Holzwege 7 (Orloff), 150, 150

How to Kill a Golden State (Bronson), 136

Hugunin, James, 114

Hunter, Debra, 161n21

hybridity, temporal, 33, 35, 43

industrial parks, xxii, 10, 14–15, 30, 35, 66, 68, 71–72, 90, 114, 140–141, 167n36

 See also Baltz, Lewis

industrial photography, 76, 173n4

Izenour, Steven, 31, 78, 175–176n21

Jackson, J. B., xxii, 78, 88, 111, 136–137, 173n1, 176n22

Jackson, T. J., 19

Jackson, William Henry, 9–10, 54, 55, 90

Jameson, Frederic, 50, 189n14

Jenkins, William

artists chosen by, listed, xvi, 1

and Baltz, xv–xviii

and the Bechers’ grid systems, 66, 90, 93

catalogue introduction by, xv–xxi

conceptions of the New Topographics exhibit, xviii, xx–xxii, 2–3, 14–16, 48–50, 53, 87, 115, 121, 124

critical reactions to, xix–xx

environmental issues, 53

and the evolution of the New Topographics exhibit, xiii–xiv

and Minimalism, 45–46, 67

neutrality issues, xvii–xxi, xxiii–xxiv, xxiv, 2–3, 8, 14–16, 28, 84, 89, 121–123

on photography’s descriptive function, 118, 133

precursors noted by, 9, 15, 101, 121

and Ruscha, xviii, 2, 15, 76–77, 101, 121–122, 124, 126, 129, 186–187n43

style/stylelessness issues, xvii–xviii, xx, 2–3, 67, 89, 113, 121–122, 124

Joe’s Auto Graveyard, New BethlehemPennsylvania (Evans), 152–153

Johns, Jasper, xix, 68

Jones, Harold, xv–xvi

Judd, Donald, 45

Kelsey, Robin, xxi

Kennedy, John F., 47

Kepes, Gyorgy, 141–142, 188n4

Kitchen Debate, 129–130

Kittredge, William, 189n12

Klein group, 68

Klett, Mark, 146

Kling, Rob, 30

Komar, Vitaly, 148

Kosuth, Joseph, 191n41

Kouwenhoven, John A., xxii

KPT Bryce landscape software, 143, 151, 190n19

Kramer, Hilton, 173n4

Krause, Kai, 143

Krauss, Rosalind, 68–69

Kruschev, Nikita, 129–130

Labor and Monopoly Capital (Braverman), 79–80

Landscape magazine, 78

landscape of alienation, 108–112

“Landscapes of Landscapes, or Art as Map” (Fontcuberta), 190n19

Lange, Suzanne, 93–94

The Large Glass (Duchamp), 158

Lawrence, George, 105, 105

Le Gray, Gustave, 147–148

Le Gray (Orogenesis) (Fontcuberta), 147

Learning from Las Vegas (Izenour, Scott Brown, &Venturi), xx, 15, 31–32, 42, 78, 175n21

Lee, Pamela, 126–128

Leicester, Andrew, 157

Lewitt, Sol, 61, 64, 68

light, 82, 97, 101, 114, 147, 155

 See also Adams, Robert; Adams. Ansel; Becher, Bernd and Hilla; Ruscha, Ed

London Orbital (Sinclair), 150

Lords of the Land (Mayer & Thomas), 73

loss and reclamation, 151–158, 192n44

Lucas, George, 139–140

Lyons, Nathan, 117, 159n2

Macdonald, Dwight, 15, 19

Maisel, David, 151, 156

man-altered landscape, 47–51, 53, 57, 66, 68, 88

 See also The New Topographics: Photos of a Man-altered Landscape

Manchester, Ellen, 146

Mandel, Ernest, 50

Mandelbrot, Benoit, 142–143

Manhattan Real Estate Holdings (Haacke), 78, 168n16

Manual (Ed Hill & Suzanne Bloom), 154–155, 155

manufactured landscape, 153

Maple Realty advertisement, 81–84, 82

mapping, xxiii, 88, 90–91, 93–101, 103, 140, 145–146

Marin, Louis, 140–141, 148, 151, 153–154

mass culture. See consumer culture

Matta-Clark, Gordon, 126–128

May, Elaine Tyler, 130

Mayer, Martin, 73

McKibben, Bill, 170n22

McNamara, Robert, 47

Meinig, D. W., 88

Melamid, Alexander, 148

Mies Van Der Rohe, Ludwig, 132

Miller, Stephen Paul, 139

Minimalist Art, xix, 45–46, 67, 77, 160n17, 168n3

Misrach, Richard, 145, 149

Mission Photographique de la DATAR, 182–183n31

Mitchell, Joan, xix

modernism

 See also postmodernism

aesthetic formalism in, 57–59, 60, 68

anti-modernism, 57–58

early modernism, xix

figurative representation in, 126

mid-century modernism, 46

montage in, 158

and photographic craftsmanship, 79–81

in photography, 125, 128

purity in, 128

and tract houses, 123, 131

Moholy-Nagy, Lászlo, 94

Moonlit Future (Alajalov), 129, 130

Morris, Robert, 157, 192n43

The Movement-Image (Deleuze), 108

Mumford, Lewis, 21

Murphy, Michelle, 163n3

Murray, Joan, 13, 15, 41

Musgrave, F. Kenneth, 143, 148, 188nn7&8

Mussolini, Benito, 111

Muybridge, Eadweard, 61, 64, 68

Napier, Mark, 153, 191n36

National Endowment grants, xvi, 160n9, 173n3

Nazi Germany, 112

Neo-Realism, 108

Neri, Louise, 115

Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity) photography, 133

Neutra, Richard, 123, 132

neutrality issues, 78, 84, 87, 89, 112, 121–137, 161n28, 161n31

 See also Adams, Robert; Baltz, Lewis; Becher, Bernd and Hilla; Conceptual Art; Deal, Joe; Gohlke, Frank; Jenkins, William; New Topographics outlook; objectivity; Ruscha, Ed; Shore, Stephen

New Documents exhibit, 117

The New Jersey Turnpike with cars heading towards Linden with the Esso refinery in the background  (Stackpole), 49

The New Landscape in Art and Science exhibit, 141–142, 142

new pictorialism, 160n17

New Topographics artists, listed, xvi, 1

New Topographics Now. See computer virtual landscape construction; loss and reclamation; utopia, degraded

New Topographics outlook

 See also aerial photography/views; architecture; neutrality issues; New Topographics Now; suburban culture/development

artificiality in, xviii

cinematic influences on, 107, 117–119

in computer-generated landscapes, 143

and craftsmanship, 76, 81

critical reactions to, 9, 80

cultural efforts of, 148–149

defined, 1–2

mythologizing process in, 149

neutrality issues, xvii–xxiv, 28, 81, 84, 87, 113–115, 121–137, 161n28, 161n31

as new language, 104–105

and Pop Art, xvi

precursors of, xix, xxiii, 9, 11, 15, 87, 90, 110, 117, 121–122, 128, 133

publishing venues for, 191n35

seriality in, 66, 68

as study focus, xv, 162n6

and traditional photography, xvii, xix–xx, 10, 12, 14, 47–48, 54–57, 64–66, 94–95, 120, 125

New Topographics period. See time-period of the New Topographics

New Topographics: Photographs of a Man-altered Landscape exhibit

 See also Jenkins, William; neutrality issues; real estate photography; specific photographers; suburban culture/development; tract houses

anthropological viewpoint in, 48, 50–51, 93

artists’ choices of works shown, 90

artists selected for, listed, xvi, 1

catalogue (1975), xiii, 45, 87, 102

color images in, 33, 67, 114

conceptions of, xviii, xx–xxii, 2–3, 14–16, 48–50, 53, 87, 115, 121, 124

critical reactions to, xix–xx, 84–85, 140

and the environmental movement, 53–54

influence of, xiii–xiv, 1, 72, 139–140, 151

installation of, 66, 67, 90

overviews of, xiii–xxv, 1–16

political vs. apolitical content, xvii, xx–xxi, 14–16, 48–49, 112, 161n27

remounting of (2009), xiii, xv, 164n5

and Ruscha, 15, 76

scientific attitudes in, 87–88, 93

systems contexts of, 46–47, 60–61, 67–68

utopia and, 140, 143, 151

variety in, 72

women photographers in, 89, 159n8

New Vision photography, 94

The New West: Landscapes Along the Front Range (Robert Adams)

 See also Adams, Robert

Adam’s intentions in, 76

automobile culture in, 25, 27

Baltz on, 48–49, 112

cameras used in, 10

captions used in, 144, 186n37, 189n12

catalogue cover detail, 49

Colorado SpringsColorado in, 37

critical reactions to, 13, 48, 124–125, 166n28, 171n38

ecological arrangements in, 62

and ecological citizenship, 16, 41

and the environmental movement, 53–54

introductory remarks in, xxiv, 4

landscapes in, 22–28, 35, 149

light qualities in, 114

processed landscapes in, 149

and real estate photography, 72

seriality in, 61–62

suburban development in, xvi, 4, 13, 25–28, 53–54, 54, 121–125, 131–137, 186n37

Szarkowski’s foreword to, 23, 60, 124–125, 171n38

tract houses in, 62, 112

Newhall, Beaumont, xv, xxiii, 13, 15, 95, 97–99

Newhall, Nancy, 17–18, 20, 101

Niépce, Nicéphore, 128

Nixon, Nicholas

aerial views by, xvii, 51, 96–97, 97, 114

Boston as subject of, xvii, 35, 38, 54, 71, 90, 96, 97

contact prints of, 81

landscape details in photos by, 38

in the New Topographics exhibit, xvi–xvii, 1, 35, 51, 71, 94

on photography, xviii

vs. Robert Adams, 38

urban landscape in, 54

as Urban Topographer, 2

View North from the Prudential Building, Boston, xvii, 96, 97

Nixon, Richard, 129–130, 136

La Notte “The Night” (Antonioni), 109–110

Nye, David, 56

objectivity, 5, 14, 81, 95, 113–115, 151, 186n40

 See also neutrality issues

Olin, Spencer, 30

On the Art of Fixing a Shadow: One Hundred and Fifty Years of Photography exhibit, 3

One Day . . . (Burnett), 144, 144

114 Hundred Homes for Sale, Dallas/Ft. Worth Metroplex (Salavon), 148

Open Systems: Rethinking Art exhibit, 46–47

Opie, Catherine, 162n33

optical democracy, 114

Orloff, Deborah, 150, 150–151

Orogenesis (Fontcuberta), 145–148, 147

O’Sullivan, Timothy H., 9–11, 11, 90, 121–122, 124, 128, 137, 140

Owing, Nathaniel, 99

Ozu, Yasujiro, 116

painting and photography, xx, 45, 125, 131, 146, 148, 154

Papageorge, Tod, 62

Paris, Capital of the Nineteenth Century” (Benjamin), 51

Park City (UT). See Baltz, Lewis

Paulson, Morton C., 73

Permutations of the Picturesque (Pfahl), 145

Pfahl, John, 145–146, 146

photoconceptualism, 117, 123–124, 126–128

 See also Conceptual Art

Photograph of San Francisco in ruins from Lawrence Captive Airship, 200 feet above San Francisco Bay (Lawrence), 105, 105

The Photographer’s Eye exhibit & catalogue, 60

“Photography by the Numbers” (Batchen), 190n19

Photo-realist painting, xx

picture windows, xxiv, 24, 37, 83, 123, 129, 131–137, 186n38

 See also suburban culture/development; tract houses

Pollock, Jackson, 113

Pop Art, xvi, xix, 77, 101–102, 110, 126, 129, 160n17, 184n6

Porter, Eliot, xvii, 14, 17, 166–167n32

Poster, Mark, 30

post-Minimalism, 46

postmodernism, 115, 140–141, 145, 189n14

 See also modernism

post-World War II period, xxii, 15, 47, 50, 59, 95, 99, 107, 113, 129, 140–141

 See also Cold War

Poussin, Nicolas, 154

Precisionism, xx, 186n40

Primary Structures exhibit, 47

processed landscapes, 148–151

public spaces privatized, 36–41, 134–135

Ratcliff, Carter, xx, 30, 42

Rauschenberg, Robert, xix

Real Estate Today photograph, 81–84, 82

real estate/real estate photography, xvii, xxiii, 7, 18, 71–85, 123, 143, 171n38, 178n34

Reclaiming the American West (Berger), 157

reclamation, 151–158

Red Desert” (Antonioni), 108–110, 109, 113

Renger-Patzsch, Albert, 133

rephotographic doubling, 147–148

Rephotographic Survey project, 90, 146–147

Rings in the Waters (Pfahl), 144, 146

The Road to Sun City (Burnett), 144, 144

Rome, Adam, 21–22

Romero, George, 41

Rothko, Mark, 113

Rothkopf, Scott, 45

Ruscha, Ed

aerial views by, 73–74, 74, 101–102, 104

Baltz influenced by, 76

camera used by, 73

Century City, 1800 Avenue of the Stars74

and Conceptual Art, xxii, xxiv, 73, 79, 121, 124–126

craftsmanship issues, 76, 79–81

Every Building on the Sunset Strip, 73, 78

5800 block of Topanga Canyon Blvd, Canoga Park, 74, 75

Gohlke on, 76

Graham influenced by, 184n6

and Jenkins, xviii, 2, 15, 76–77, 101, 121–122, 124, 126, 129, 186–187n43

and Learning from Las Vegas, 78

light in photos by, 74

neutrality issues, xviii–xix, xxii, 6, 84, 101

and the New Topographics exhibit, 2, 73, 77

and the New Topographics outlook, 15, 76

and the New Topographics photographers, xviii, xxii–xxiv, 2, 6, 32, 76, 101–102

as photoconceptualist, 121–124, 126

and photography-time relations, 119

as Pop artist, 101–102, 129

Real Estate Opportunities, 73–76, 148, 174n12

and real estate photography, 73–76, 78–79, 84

and Schott, xviii

seriality in photos by, 68, 73, 101–102

and the Signs of Life exhibit, 167n38

sociopolitical concerns of, xxiv

Some Los Angeles Apartments, 73

style/stylelessness issues, 73–76, 102, 124

Thirtyfour Parking Lots in Los Angeles, 73–74, 101–102

time and photography in snapshots of, 119

Twentysix Gasoline Stations, xviii, 73, 75, 101, 174n12

Russell, Andrew. J., 9–10

Salavon, Jason, 148

Salvesen, Britt, 161n22

Sandeen, Eric J., 166n28

Sander, August, 94, 191n35

Sanders, Don, 82–83

Sandweiss, Martha A., 101

Scarry, Elaine, 41

Scemama-Heard, Céline, 113

Schott, John

automobile landscapes in photos by, 32, 51

built landscapes accepted by, xxi, 15, 30, 41

contact prints of, 81

craftsmanship of, 81

vs. Deal, 32

Evans’s influence on, 81, 177n32

landscape details in photos by, 38

and Learning from Las Vegas, 175n21

in The New Topographics exhibit, xvi, 1

on photography, 160n15

Route 66 Motels, xvii, 32, 32, 51, 90

and Ruscha, xviii

style/stylelessness issues, xviii

and Wessel, 32

Schulman, Bruce, 37, 89

Scott Brown, Denise, xx, 30–31, 42, 78, 175–176n21

Scrolls (Pfahl), 145

“Sculpture in the Expanded Field” (Krauss), 68–69

Seascape with Cloud Study (Le Gray), 147

Second Life computer game, 144, 189n13

Serial Art, 46, 61–62

“The Serial Attitude” (Bochner), 67

seriality, 10, 61–63, 73, 77–79, 102

Serra, Richard, 68

The Seventies (Schulman), 88

Sharp, Willoughby, 46

Sharpe, William, 135–136

Sheeler, Charles, 133, 186n40

Sherman, Cindy, 162n33

ShoreStephen

artistic goals of, 42

awards/grants received by, 160n9

built landscapes accepted by, xxi, 15–16, 30, 33–35, 41–42

camera used by, 67

color photos by, xvii, 33, 67, 114, 167n39

critical reaction to, 42

and ecological citizenship, 16, 33–34

Hilla Becher’s influence on, xvi

and Learning from Las Vegas, 15–16, 175–176n21

neutrality issues, 87

in The New Topographics exhibit, xvi–xvii, 1, 33, 42, 51

and Photo-realist painting, xx

vs. Robert Adams, 34–35

ruined landscapes in photos by, 119

2nd Street East and South Main StreetKalispellMontana, 33–34, 34

seriality in the photos of, 67

in Signs of Life catalogue, 167n39, 175–176n21

as Urban Topographer, 2

and Venturi, 15–16, 175–176n21

Sierra Club, xxi, 14, 17–22, 27, 43, 164n8, 166n32

 See also This is the American Earth

Signs of Life: Symbols in the American City exhibit & catalogue, 33, 42, 167n38, 167n39

Silent Spring (Carson), 53, 56, 165n18, 170n22, 170n23

SimCity/SimEarth computer games, 145

Simmel, Georg, 134

Sinclair, Iain, 150–151

“The Sixties: Crisis, and Aftermath (Or the Memoirs of an Ex-Conceptual Artist)” (Burn), 79

Smith, Tony, xxii, 47–48, 50, 57–59, 66

Smithson, Robert

and Baltz’s landscapes, 152

and the Bechers, 183n41

and entropic landscapes, xxv, 119

environmental temporalization in, 128

The Fountain Monument, 51, 52

Partially Buried Woodshed, 68

photographer’s role questioned by, 127

and photography-time relations, 119

on reclamation art, 156–157, 192n44

The Sandbox Monument (The Desert), 51, 52

sculptural discourse expanded by, 69

Spiral Jetty, 68

and systems/serial art, 68

“A Tour of the Monuments of Passaic”, xxii, 51–53

snapshots/snapshot aesthetic, xxiv, 76–78, 80, 110, 116–117, 119, 177n29

société de loisir (leisure society; American social model), 110

Solnit, Rebecca, 27

Sontag, Susan, 108

Stackpole, Peter, 49

Stafford, Barbara, 90

Stallone, Sylvester, 148

Steinberg, Leo, xix

Stella, Frank, xix

Stieglitz, Alfred, 61, 80

Strand, Paul, xiii–xiv, 182n23

style/stylelessness issues

 See also Graham, Dan; Jenkins, William; New Topographics exhibit; Ruscha, Ed; specific New Topographics photographers

and aerial photography/views, 95, 97, 103

and contemporaneous art movements, xviii–xx

vs. documentary photography, 117–118

and real estate photography, 71–73

and scientific approaches to art-making, 93

and social commentary, 89

and systems art/theory, 46, 67–69

and viewer involvement, xxiii

suburban culture/development

 See also architecture; Graham, Dan; picture windows; specific New Topographics photographers; tract houses

acknowledgement of, 79

American shift toward, xiv, xxiv, 72–73, 129–131

cinematic representation of, 109–112

forces behind, 129–131

in the New Topographics exhibit, 4–5

in the New Topographics period, 50, 59

and photoconceptualism, 127

photography’s role in considerations of, 85

Sunset at 41,000 feet, Mount McKinleyAlaska (Washburn), 98, 99

systems art/theory, xxii, 46–47, 50, 57–69, 171n38, 189n15

Systems exhibit, 47

Szarkowski, John, 23, 60–61, 64, 69, 117, 124–125, 166n24, 171n38

Taylor-Wood, Sam, 68

the technological sublime, 55

Telephones #21, HamiltonOntario (Burtynsky), 154

temporal hybridity, 33, 35, 43

Terragen landscape construction software, 190n19

Thinking Photography (Burgin), 125

This is the American Earth (Sierra Club), 17–18, 20–21, 23, 100–101

Thomas, Dana L., 73

Thoreau, Henry David, 27

Thornton, Gene, 177n29

time-image, xxiv, 108, 115–120

The Time-Image (Deleuze), 108

time-period of New Topographics, xiv, 47, 55–57, 89, 104–105, 117, 162n6

 See also Cold War; post-World War II period

topographic state, 87

Toward a Social Landscape exhibit, 117, 159n2

tract houses, xiv–xvii, xxi–xxii, xxiv, 50, 68, 71, 84–85, 112, 123, 127–129

 See also Adams, Robert; Baltz, Lewis; Deal, Joe; The New West

The “Treasure State”: Montana 1889-1989 (Hanson), 156

Tufte, Edward, 158

Two or Three Things I Know About Her (Godard), 109, 111, 119

Twombly, Cy, xix

Tyler May, Elaine, 130

typologies, 93–94, 102

Unreal Estate (Wolff), 73

Urban Topographers, 2

U.S. Federal Housing Administration, 129

U.S. geological surveys, xxi, 9–11, 90, 121–124, 128, 137, 140

U.S. Veterans Administration, 129

utopia

degraded, xxv, 139–141, 144–145, 156–157

and the New Topographics outlook, 140, 143, 151

suburbia as, 136

Utopique, jeux d’espace (Marin), 140

VA (U.S. Veterans Administration), 129

The Valley of Vision (Sinclair), 151

Venturi, Robert, xx, 15, 30–33, 35, 42, 78, 167n38, 175–176n21

Vietnam War, xiv, 89, 111–112

View from Sarpy Creek Road: New Mine Area and Spoil Piles (Hanson), 155–156, 156

Visual Studies Workshop, xvi, xx

Voss, Richard, 143

“Walking” (Thoreau), 27

Wall, Jeff, 68, 115, 162n33

Wallock, Leonard, 135–136

Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog (Friedrich), 146

Warhol, Andy, xix

Washburn, Bradford, xxiii, 95, 97–99, 99, 101, 104

Waste Land (Hanson), 189n12

Watergate, xiv, 89, 104

Watkins, Carlton E., 54, 90, 149, 176n28

Wenger, Eric, 143

Wessel, Henry, Jr.

awards/grants received by, 160n9

California houses and roadsides in, xvii, 72

in the New Topographics exhibit, xvi–xvii, 1

and real estate photography, 81–84, 178n34

and Schott, 32

and the snapshot aesthetic, 177n29

Tucson83, 83–84

The West as America: Reinterpreting Images of the American Frontier exhibit & catalogue, 55

West Coast aesthetic, 1

Westerbeck, Colin, 3–4

Weston, Edward, 6, 132–133, 186n40

White, Minor, xxiii, 1, 6, 65, 80, 87, 94

Wilderness Act (1964), 18–19, 165n12

wilderness aesthetic, 13–14, 17, 22, 125, 164n8

Winogrand, Garry, 65–66, 80, 94, 118

Wolff, Anthony, 73

women photographers, 89, 159n8

The World Viewed (Cavell), 113

World War II. See post-World War II period

Wounded Knee Indian Occupation, 89

Wright, Will, 189n15

Zabriski Point  (Antonioni), 111