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Jim Crow Nostalgia: Reconstructing Race in Bronzeville

Michelle R. Boyd

© 2008 University of Minnesota Press

Reproduced by permission of the publisher.

(Run-In Style. Titles normally italicized were underlined at publisher’s request.)

 

Abbott, Robert, 14, 129

accommodationism: black elites and, 3, 40; blacks’ definition of, 

    xiv–xv; of Booker T. Washington, 11; disinvestment and, 3, 32; 

    machine politics and, 3, 37, 40; in the migration era, 

    8–9; segregation and, 23–24, 32; self-help strategies and, 36–38

activism, 28, 29–30, 45–46, 58–60, 93, 125, 162

affirmative action policies, 109, 133, 135, 136

Affirmative Information Policy, 51–52

affordable housing, xiv, 112, 120, 131–33, 139–40, 143, 156, 161–62

African-American elites. See black elites

African-American identity. See racial identity

African-American nation, xxi

African village, 114

Alisnky neighborhood organization, 46

Alpha Suffrage Club, 15

AME church bishop, 140

Anderson, Louis B., 22–23

Anthony, Steven, xi–xiii, xxiv, 71, 78, 80–81, 86–87, 140–41

appropriation of racial injury, 160

architects, 60–61, 63, 106, 124, 144

Armour, Philip, 7

Armstrong, Louis, 85

art projects, 88–90, 109, 152

Australian Ballot, 6

authenticity. See racial authenticity

 

Baker, David, 39

Barnett, Ida B. Wells, 15

Barnett, William, 167 (chap. 2)n3

Bee Building, 88

Bennet, Chandra, 60

Binga, Jesse, 14, 20, 76

Binga Bank Building, 86, 141

black activism. See activism

Black Belt, 11–38, 71

black business development/ownership: Blues Fest and, 94;     

    Bronzeville redevelopment and, 99; client-patron politics and, 

    15; demolition and, 140; Depression and, 166n8; Early migration and,     

    16; gentrification and, 145–47; middle class and, 122; origins of, 12–18; 

    Overton Building and, 141; pre-migration, 168 (chap.3)n1; racial advancement and, 

    16, 77, 146–47; reimagined, 76–77; vs. residential development, 126; Restoring Bronzeville and, 

    94; self-help ideology and, 20–21; tourism and, 62; upper-income class and, 147; 

    See also black elites

black community organizations. See Bronzeville Coalition; community development organizations; Mid-South

black conservatives, 134–35

black containment. See racial containment

black cultural innovation, 78–79, 90

black diaspora, xxi

black electorate: as black elite focus, 7; black political diversity and, xvi; Bronzeville legacy and, 

    96; Daley administration challenged by, 44–46; Daley supported by, 41–43; 

    machine politics, break from, 40–41, 44–46, 62; racial identity and, 133; strength of, 12–13, 15;

    See also black political machine; Democratic Party; Democratic Party machine; Republican Party; Republican Party machine

black elites: accommodationism and, 3, 40; activism and, 29; black electoral development and, 7; 

    black interests subordinated by, 8, 132; civil rights movement and, xxiv–xxv; class-based leadership and, 40, 

    64; consensus issues and, 137–38; Democratic Party, marginalized in, 42; disinvestment and, 21; 

    Early Migration and, 159; economic nationalism of, 27; employment roles of, xviii; gentrification and, 

    146; integration and, 7; Mid-South privileging, 156; minority status of, 2; new missions of, 11; 

    older generations of, 13, 24; as political brokers, 161; political power reduced, 32; preferences 

    considered as communal, xiv, xxx, 133, 137, 147, 156, 159, 163; racial advancement and, 21, 76–77, 156, 160; 

    racial formation theory and, xxii; racial identity and, 132–33, 138; racial injury appropriated by, 160; 

    racial solidarity and, 122; Republican Party and, 5–6; segregation and, 7, 11, 19–20, 22–24, 37; 

    social status of, xxiv–xxv, xxx; while elites and, xvii, xxv, 3–8, 12, 18, 40–41, 77–78; white backlash and, xix; 

    See also black business development/ownership; black political leaders; lower-income class; middle class; upper-income class

black entrepreneurship. See black business development/ownership; black elites

Black History Month, 138

black identity. See racial identity

black laws, 6–7

black market (unregulated commerce), 12

Black Metropolis (Drake and Clayton), xxv, 83–84, 91

Black Metropolis Convention and Tourism Council, 60–61, 64–65, 76, 79, 87, 139

Black Metropolis Historic District: building rehabilitation in, 52; businesses founded in, 76; 

    demolition in, 129, 132, 138–39; designation of, 71; Karl and, 88; landmark status and, 61, 82; 

    See also community redevelopment; Mid-South; Restoring Bronzeville; tourism

black migration. See Early Migration (1890-1915); Great Migration (1915-1930)

black nationalism, 48

Black Panther party, 44

black political independence, 78

black political leaders: vs. Bronzeville community leaders, 102; community organizations challenging, 

    62, 110; constraints on election of, xvii; Democratic Party support withdrawn from, 46; 

    entrepreneurial character of, xvi; first elections of, 15–16; Great Migration and, xvi; 

    vs. Mid-South, 113; racial authenticity and, 104; racial identity and, 132; renewed strength of, 31; revolt against, 45;

    See also black machine politics; Republican Party; Second Ward; Third Ward

black political machine, 15–16, 31–32, 37, 40–41, 45–46, 62; See also Democratic Party; Democratic Party machine; machine politics; Republican Party; Republican Party machine

black power movement, xviii, 48

Black Wall Street of America, 76

black wards, 41, 44–45; See also Fourth Ward; Second Ward; Third Ward

blight, 33–34, 55

block clubs, 113

Blue Ribbon Committee, 67–68, 82, 107–8

Blues Fest, 93–95, 168 (chap.3)n3

branding, 87–97

Bridgeport (Illinois), 55, 72–73

Bronzeville. See Black Metropolis Historic District; community redevelopment; Mid-South; Restoring Bronzeville; tourism

Bronzeville Coalition: Black Metropolis and, 83–84; Bronzeville Gateway and, 89–90, 

    109; Bronzeville identity and, 99–102, 147; class preferences of, 142; 

    community heritage notions of, challenged, 130; demolition and, 139–44; gentrification and, 

    145–47; historical views, alternatives to, 95–97, 156; intraracial conflict and, 110–30, 148–49; 

    landmark designation and, 129; lower-income class and, 120; Mid-South and, 113–14; 

    place-marketing campaigns of, 70–85, 99–100; Preckwinkle and, 125; preferences considered as 

    communal, 156, 159; public housing and, 141–43; racial advancement and, 95; racial authenticity and, 

    120; racial discrimination and, 95; racial identity and, 68–69; Second Ward and, 113–14; 

    segregation and, 95; success of, debated, 67–70; Third Ward and, 113–14; tourism and, 61–62

Bronzeville Gateway, 89–90, 109

Bronzeville history reimagined. See “New South Side, The”; Anthony, Steven; Black Metropolis 

    Convention and Tourism Council; Black Metropolis Historic District; Bronzeville Coalition; 

    Bronzeville identity; community folklore; Mid-South; place-marketing; racial golden age; tourism

Bronzeville identity, 71, 84, 99–102, 111, 121, 132–33, 147–48

Bronzeville Military Academy, 91

Bronzeville Organizer’s Alliance, 61, 92

Bronzeville Organizing Strategy Session, xxvii, 64–65

Bronzeville spirit, 92–93

Brooks, Gwendolyn: “A Street in Bronzeville”, 84

Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, 29, 96; See also Pullman Company

Brown, Wendy, 52–54, 64, 85, 108, 119, 121

Brown vs. Board of Education, 158

Burn Baby Burn (slogan/hot sauce), 159

business development/ownership. See black business development/ownership

Byrne, Jane, 48

 

Cabrini Green housing project, 54

Carey, Archibald J., Jr., 34–35

Centers for New Horizons, 61

Central Station, 53–55

Cermak, Anton, 26–27, 31–32

CHA. See Chicago Housing Authority

charettes, 59–60, 77, 93, 141

Chester, Delia, 51, 101–2, 129–30, 147, 167 (chap. 2)n3

Chicago Area Rehab Network, 48

Chicago Association of Neighborhood Development Organizations, 48

Chicago Bee (newspaper), 14, 59

Chicago Board of Education, 43

Chicago Defender (newspaper), xii, 14, 18, 22–23, 28, 141

Chicago Defender Building, 129, 141

Chicago Department of Planning, 59

Chicago Enterprise (newspaper), 14

Chicago Historical Society, 87

Chicago Housing Authority (CHA), 35, 43–44, 56, 139, 151, 169n5

Chicago Metropolitan Mutual Life Insurance, 77

Chicago Real Estate Board, 11

Chicago Riot Commission, 22

Chicago Urban League. See Urban League

Chicago Works program, 52

Christ Mediator Housing Group, 47

Civil Rights Act (1964), xvii, 49

civil rights movement: Black Belt activism and, 45–46; black elites and, xxiv–xxv; 

    economic prosperity and, 167 (chap. 2)n4; intraracial conflict and, 149; J

    im Crow nostalgia and, 158; limitations generated by, 158; political preferences after, 

    133; Pullman porters’ union anticipating, 28; racial group interests and, 135–36; 

    racial solidarity and, 116; racism and, 158; revitalization of, 43

civil rights organizing, 41–46

Clark, Lenard, 72

Clark, Mark, 44

Clarke, Irving, 127–28

class identity. See black elites; lower-income class; middle class; race/class interaction theory; 

    racial authenticity; racial identity; upper-income class

Clayton, Horace R.: Black Metropolis, xxv, 83–84, 91

client-patron politics: black business development and, 15; community decline and, 

    24–38; Democratic Party machine and, 3, 27, 42; machine politics and, 19, 26–27; 

    in nineteenth-century black Chicago, 3–8; racial containment and, 18; relocation and, 

    16; Republican Party and, 15; in the Thompson administration, 166n5

Coalition to Protect Public Housing, 143

Cole, Nat King, 88

collectivism. See racial collectivism

Colored Women’s Conference of Chicago, 13

commercial center (proposed), 88

commodification of blackness, 159–60

Communist Party, 28–30

Community Development Block Grants, 52, 58

community development organizations. 

    See Black Metropolis Convention and Tourism Council; Bronzeville Coalition; Mid-South

community folklore, 83–87

community redevelopment: aldermanic control of, 113–15, 125; conflicting goals within, xxxi, 

    1–2, 40, 47, 53–58, 62–63, 99–102; demolition and, 139; employment opportunities and, 106–9; 

    historic development and, 39, 51–53, 60–62, 99–100; IIT and, 54–57; lower-income class and, 

    xxvi, 112–13, 121; planning infrastructure lacking in, 57; reinvestment and, 34–35, 56; 

    renewed focus on, 67; residents’ participation in, 58–60, 70–74, 99–102, 108–12; 

    Richard J. Daley and, 107–8; white elites and, 107–8;  See also Black Metropolis Historic District; 

    Bronzeville history reimagined; Mid-South; Restoring Bronzeville; tourism

Community Workshop on Economic Development, 48–49

Congress of Racial Equality, 43

consensus issues, 137–51

constructionist theory, xxii–xxiii

containment. See racial containment

contractors, 124, 131–32

Coordinating Council of Community Organizations, 43, 46

Corneal A. Davis apartments, 51

Cottage Grove Avenue, 23, 68, 126

Council of Negro Organizations, 29

Crosstown Expressway, 48

cultural innovation. See black cultural innovation

 

Dahl, Robert, xx

Daley, Richard J.: black electoral support for, 41–43; black electorate, challenged by, 44–46; 

    Bridgeport residence of, 72; Bronzeville development and, 67; community organizations controlled by, 

    46; community redevelopment, role in, 107–8; Democratic Party machine and, 41–42; 

    development plans of, 53–54; New Downtown and, 53–54; racism in administration of, 

    42–45; riot orders issued by, 44; Wabash YMCA rehabilitation supported by, 138

Dan Ryan Expressway, 68, 69

Dawson, William, 31–32, 34, 42, 129–30

Dawson Professional Building, 129

Dean, Rachel, 110–11, 151

Dearborn Homes housing project, xxvi, 55

Dearborn Park (Illinois), 55

The Declining Significance of Race (Wilson), xx

De La Salle High School, 55, 59, 101

Democratic Party: allegiances shifting to, 26–27, 31, 167n10; black Democrats controlled by,

    27; black elites marginalized in, 42; as black political preference, 134–35; black political support 

    withdrawn by, 46; capitulation to blacks and, xix; Communist Party and, 29; 

    ward organization vs. Bronzeville Coalition, 113–14;  See also machine politics; Republican Party

 Democratic Party machine: accommodationism and, 37; black neighborhood politics controlled by, 

    41; client-patron politics and, 3, 27, 42; community organizations and, 46–47; Dawson and, 31–32, 

    34; Mid-South and, 115; Richard J. Daley and, 41–42; 

    See also machine politics; Republican Party machine

demographics (Bronzeville; Douglas/Grand Boulevard), xxv–xxvii, 10, 23, 54–55, 110–11

demolition, 132–34, 138–51; See also Restoring Bronzeville

Depression, 14, 24–26, 29–30, 45–46, 76, 166n8

DePriest, Oscar, 15–16, 20, 99, 167n14

desegregation. See civil rights movement; integration (civil-rights era); integration (pre-civil rights era)

developers: aldermanic holds and, 115; author’s access to, xxix; Bronzeville Gateway and, 

    90; Bronzeville identity and, 99; Chester and, 147; community redevelopment and, 

    110; employment opportunities and, 106, 124; exploitation of blacks and, 20–21; 

    IIT and, 57, 131–32; Mid-South and, 131–32; neighborhood history reimagined by, 

    71–72, 84; place-marketing and, 69, 72; racial containment and, 23, 33; racial displacement and, 54; 

    racial identity and, 108; Redevelopment and Relocation Acts and, 34; residential authenticity of, 

    117–18, 127–28, 131–32; residents’ needs and, 62–63; Simpson and, 37–38; of tourism, 140; voluntary segregation and, 22

development. See Black Metropolis Convention and Tourism Council; Black Metropolis Historic District; Bronzeville Coalition; community redevelopment; Mid-South

Dickerson, Earl B., 32

disinvestment: accommodationism and, 3, 32; black elites and, 21; Bronzeville residents affected by,

    71; community development organizations and, 40, 62; consequences of, contemporary, xxvi; 

    legacy of, 161; middle class and, 50; minimization of, 152; planning infrastructures and, 57

displacement. See racial displacement

Douglas Development Corporation, 47–48, 51, 139

Douglas/Grand Boulevard community (Bronzeville). See Black Metropolis Convention and Tourism Council; 

    Black Metropolis Historic District; black elites; Bronzeville Coalition; demographics; Jim Crow nostalgia; 

    Mid-South; Restoring Bronzeville; white elites

Dowell-Cerasoli, Pat, 79

Drake, St. Clair: Black Metropolis, xxv, 83–84, 91

DuBois, W. E. B., 11

 

Early Migration (1890-1915): black business success during, 16; black elites and, 159; 

    black labor and, 96; as Bronzeville neighborhood peak, 75; factors contributing to, 

    9; intraracial cooperation and, 120; neighborhood strategies during, 29; oral histories of, 

    168 (chap.3)n2; segregation and, 12, 75; working class contributions during, 163;

    See also Great Migration (1915-1930)

East Bridgeport (proposed Bronzeville name), 72–73

Eastman, Francis, 6

education campaigns, 90–92

Eighth Infantry Regiment, 29

Eighth Infantry Regiment Armory, 86, 139

electoral power. See black electorate; black political leaders

elites. See black elites; white elites

Ellis, Nina, 92–93

El trains/stations, 57, 88, 90

employment opportunities: black migration and, 33; Bronzeville and, 96, 106–9; developers and, 

    106, 124; forced hiring campaigns and, 28; in government agencies, xviii, 49–50; in industry, 

    9; labor market segmentation and, 4–5; lacking, 106; loss of, 9, 25–26, 47–48; and racial authenticity, 

    124; Restoring Bronzeville and, 107; rising incomes and, 50; service, vs. Negro jobs, 166n7; 

    social welfare agencies and, 17, 50; in the Thompson administration, 166n5

Empowerment Zone program, 114, 126

Equal Opportunity League, 11

Equal Rights and Protective League of Illinois, 166n2

Ethan, Olivia, 111

ethnic tourism. See tourism, heritage; tourism, racial

Evans, Madeleine, 143

exploitation, xviii, 13, 19–21

 

 

fair housing legislation, 43

Fellowship Herald (newspaper), 14

female-headed households, xxvi–xxvii

Fifty-first Street, xi, xxv, 14, 143

First Congressional District, 31

First National Bank, 59, 109–10

folklore. See community folklore; residential folk historians

Forty-seventh Street, xi, 1, 20, 69, 125–26

Forty-Seventh Street Merchant Association, 114

Forty-third Street, xi, 93, 94–95, 106, 125–26

Fourth Ward, 113–14

Franklin (Mid-South project architect), 123, 146–47

Freedom of Information Act, 51

Free Soil journalism, 6

 

gambling saloons, 14, 19

Gap community, 52–54, 61, 100–101, 167 (chap.2)n3

Gap Community Organization, 47, 49, 51

Gateway planning group, 88

Gautreaux, Dorothy, 43–44

gentrification: affordable housing and, 161–62; black, xiv; black business development and, 

    145–47; black elites and, 146; Bronzeville Coalition and, 145–47; economic vs. racial, 151; 

    historic preservation and, 53; lower-income class and, 151; middle class and, 122; Mid-South and, 

    105–6, 132–33; public housing and, 160–62; racial advancement and, 146–47, 150; racial discrimination and, 

    151; racial displacement and, 35–36, 145, 151, 153; upper-income class and, 151; 

    ward politics and, 113; white neighborhood appropriation and, 105–6

ghettos, xxvi, 8, 16, 99, 163

glamorizing history. See Bronzeville history reimagined

golden age. See racial golden age

government funding of community redevelopment, 34, 58; See also black political leaders

Grand Boulevard, 7, 54

Great Migration (1915-1930): accommodationism during, 8–9; black elite behavior during, 

    159; black political leaders and, xvi; cultural values of, xiii–xiv, xv; Depression and, 26; 

    factors contributing to, 9; integration and, 3; overcrowding caused by, 9–10; 

    racial containment and, 37; white resistance to, xxvi; working class contributions during, 163; 

    See also Early Migration (1890-1915)

Great Northern Migration Monument, 89–90

Great Society, xviii

Griffin, Ernest, 50

group associations theory, xx

group conflict theory, 165n1

group consciousness, 137

Gunther, David, 117, 119

 

Haithcock, Madeline, 115, 125, 131–32

Hall, George Cleveland, 10

Hampton, Fred, 44

Hanrahan, Edward V., 44

Harlem, 168 (chap.4)n1

Harlem Renaissance, 103, 148

Hartzell Memorial Church, 131

heritage tourism. See tourism, heritage

Hilliard, David, 159

historical preservation, 148

Historic Bronzeville Street Map, 90

historic preservation. See Black Metropolis Historic District; community redevelopment; 

    consensus issues; demolition; Mid-South; Restoring Bronzeville; tourism

Hobsbawm, Eric, 93

homeownership: demolition and, 140; gentrification and, 150–51, 160; 

    heritage tourism and, 65; interracial conflict and, 110–12; Karl on, 

    145; Mid-South and, 59; privileged status of, xiv, 65, 110, 139; 

    property taxes and, 150; public housing and, xiv; restoration and, 50; Silk on, 150

Hope, Lugenia Burns, 87

housing construction boom, 23

housing projects. See public housing

housing shortages, 10, 21–24, 26

housing vouchers, 51, 151

Howard, Kevin, 106

Huey Newton Foundation, 159

Hyde Park (Illinois), 10–11, 24, 123

Hyde Park-Kenwood Property Owners’ Association, 11

 

Ida B. Wells housing project, xxvi, 26, 35, 123–24, 128, 139

IITSee Illinois Institute of Technology

Illinois College of Optometry, xxvii, 55, 59

Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT): Bronzeville and, 78, 80, 101; community redevelopment and, 

    54–57; developers and, 57, 131–32; Douglas/Grand Boulevard community and, xxvii, 

    34, 39–40, 54–57; Mid-South and, 62, 64; racial displacement and, 58; at Second Ward meeting, 131

Indiana Boulevard, 141

Indigenous Families, 150

Ingram, William, 76–77, 144

insiders, 110–17

insurance industry, 49, 50

integration (civil-rights era), xiii–xiv, 2, 43, 101; See also civil rights movement; racial egalitarianism; segregation

integration (pre-civil rights era), 3, 4–8, 10, 13, 18, 31, 34–35, 101; See also racial egalitarianism; segregation

International Harvester, 9

interpretive methodology, 157

interracial conflict, xxv, xxviii, 4, 8, 105–10, 156–57

intraracial conflict, xvii, xxv, 10, 101, 110–30, 148–51; See also racial discrimination; racism; segregation

Isaacs, Jonathan, 109–10, 118

 

Jackson, Robert R., 16

Jeffries, Randolph, 68, 80–81, 86, 111–12, 115

Jim Crow identity, xiii–xv, xxi, xxiv, 41, 65

Jim Crow nostalgia: community development leaders and, xxx, 152–53; defined, xiii; 

    Douglas/Grand Boulevard deterioration and, 3; lessons learned from, 156–58; 

    neighborhood revitalization and, xxv; poverty and, 2; purposes served by, 37–38; racial identity and, 

    xiii–xv, xxi, xxiv, 41, 65; racial politics and, 2, 38; as rise and fall narrative, 2, 81; 

    See also “New South Side, The”; Black Metropolis Convention and Tourism Council; 

    Black Metropolis Historic District; Bronzeville Coalition; Bronzeville identity; community folklore; 

    Mid-South; place-marketing; racial discrimination; racial golden age; racism; segregation; tourism

jitney cabs, 32

jobs. See employment opportunities

Johnny Seymore’s Saloon, 14

Johnson, John, 84

Jones, John, 5–6

Jordan, Joseph, 76

 

Karanaja, Sokoni, 61

Karl, Grady, 72–74, 84, 86, 116–17, 122, 125–28, 141, 145

Kelly, Edward, 31–32

Kennedy, Leroy, 39, 58

Kennelly, Martin, 32, 41

Kenwood (Illinois), 10–11

Kenwood-Oakland Community Organization, 47

King, Martin Luther, Jr., 43–44

King Drive, xi, 50, 52–53, 88–90, 95, 106, 108–9

King Drive Gateway, 89

Kirk, Justin, 118

Kohlsaat, H. H., 7

 

labor disputes, 9

labor market segmentation, 4

labor unions, 18, 29–30; See also Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters; Pullman Company

Lacey, Ken, 118–19

Lake Meadows housing project, 34, 36, 56, 149

Lake Meadows Shopping Center, 52

Lake Michigan, xxvi, 69

Lake Park Avenue, 106

landmark designation, 129, 141

Lane, Althea, xxviii, xxxi

leisure economy, 14

linked-fate racial identity. See racial identity, linked-fate

Loop (Chicago), 33–34, 48

lottery, 32

lower-income class: black elites and, xvi–xvii, xix, xxiv, 10, 64; black exploitation of, 19–20; blamed for 

    neighborhood decline, 156; blamed for racial inequality, xviii–xix; Bronzeville Coalition and, 

    120; community redevelopment and, xxvi, 113, 121; demolition and, 139–40; 

    female-headed households and, xxvii; gentrification and, 151; vs. other class strata, 102, 

    112–13, 139–40; political involvement of, 46; public housing and, 112; race-based politics and, 

    163; racial authenticity and, 120; racial identity and, 162; social welfare agencies and, 64;

    See also middle class; upper-income class

low-income housing, xiv, 112, 120, 131–32, 139–40, 143, 145

Lucas, Harold, 60–61, 76, 79

 

machine politics: accommodationism and, 3, 40; blacks’ early populations and, 5; 

    black voters’ break from, 40–41, 44–46, 62; as client-patron politics, 19, 26–27; 

    Dawson and, 30–32; domination of, 31–36; early systems of, 5; Edward Wright and, 16, 

    19; middle-class and, 45; middle class and, 45; Second Ward and, 26; Third Ward and, 26;

    See also black political machine; Democratic Party; Democratic Party machine; 

    Republican Party; Republican Party machine

Madden, Martin, 6

Madden Park housing project, 139

Marcus, Sandra, 149

marketing, 68–85, 99–100

Mayo Elementary School, 90–91

McCormick Place, 89, 108–9

McCormick-Tribune Foundation, 56, 58

Medill, Joseph, 6

Mercy Hospital, xxvii, 55, 57, 59

Metropolitan Pier and Exposition Authority, 88, 100, 108–9

Michael Reese Hospital, xxvii, 34, 55–57, 59

Michigan Avenue, xii, 52, 141

Michigan Boulevard Apartment Building, 19–23

middle class: advancement of, xv; black business development and, 122; black culture and, 

    81; black elites among, 36; Bronzeville, returning to, 81, 122, 124, 145; Bronzeville abandoned by, 

    80; class concerns of, xvi, 36, 159; class stratification and, xx, 64; commodification of blackness and, 

    159–60; community leadership of, xxiv, 49–50, 65; demolition and, 140; disinvestment and, 50; 

    employment categories among, xviii; gentrification and, 122; ghetto management of, 163; 

    historic preservation and, 52, 90; housing for, 34, 50; increase in residents from, 113; Karl on, 

    145–46; machine politics and, 45; Mid-South, privileged by, 156; neighborhoods abandoned by, 

    80–81; vs. other class strata, 79–80, 90, 102, 112–13, 121; political diversity and, xvii; 

    racial advancement and, xvi; racial authenticity and, 160–61; racial collectivism and, 168 (chap.4)n3; 

    racial injury appropriated by, 160; racism and, 160; social control established by, 158; social status of, 50;

    See also lower-income class; upper-income class

Mid-South Planning and Development Commission (Mid-South): artists associated with Bronzeville by, 78; 

    author’s relationship with, xxvii–xxix, xxxi, 165n6; black elites privileged by, 156; vs. black political leaders, 

    113; as Blues Fest sponsor, 93–94; Bronzeville boundaries determined by, 68; vs. Bronzeville Coalition, 

    113–14; Bronzeville historic district promoted by, 51; Bronzeville identity and, 99; Bronzeville Organizing 

    Strategy Session and, 61; class tension within, 111–12; constraints on, 62–63; Democratic Party 

    machine and, 115; demolition and, 132–33, 138–40; developers and, 131–32; development of, xxiii, 

    39, 58, 59, 64; Economic Development Committee of, xxvii; failure of, 116–17, 156; 

    gentrification and, 105–6, 132–33; homeownership and, 59, 91; house tour sponsored by, 87; 

    IIT and, 62, 64; independence applauded by, 78; landmark rehabilitation and, 82; mediating role of, 

    63–64; middle class privileged by, 156; place-marketing strategies and, 71; plans of, published, 69; 

    public housing and, 59; racial advancement and, 27, 156; racial displacement and, 40; at Second Ward meeting, 131; 

    South Side Development Corporation and, 106; upper-income class privileged by, 156; ward politicians threatened by, 113;

    See also Black Metropolis Historic District; community redevelopment; Restoring Bronzeville; tourism

Mid-South Planning Group, 59

migration. See Early Migration (1890-1915); Great Migration (1915-1930)

Minority/Women Business Enterprise certification, 109

mixed-income housing, 112, 139–40, 143

mobility, 80–81, 121, 165n5

Motts, Robert, 166n4

Muddy Waters Blues District Business Association, 94

multiculturalism, 101

musical heritage, 78

music venues, 14, 78, 86, 94–95, 126

NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), 11, 27–29, 30, 35, 43, 62

National Indemnity Corporation, 139

Negro Progress, 90

Neighborhoods: Keepers of Culture (cultural exhibit), 86–87

Neighbors, William D, 20

New Deal coalition, xviii–xix

New Downtown, 54

“New South Side, The” (Rodkin, Whitaker and Wilk), 152

Newton, Fredrika, 159

Newton, Huey, 159

New Working Family Community (social program), 150

New York City, xiv, 50, 159

New York Life Insurance Company, 56

Niagara movement, 11

Nichols, Helena, 141

night clubs, 14

nostalgia. See Bronzeville history reimagined; Jim Crow nostalgia

 

Ogden, Louie, 85, 115, 120–21, 128, 162–63

old settlers, 7, 13

Orlando, Bette, 126–28

outsiders, 105–10, 111, 117–19, 147

overcrowding, 9–10, 95

Overton, Anthony, 58–60, 76

Overton Building, 86, 91, 123, 139, 141, 144

Overton Charette, 144

 

patronage politics. See client-patron politics

Paul Stuart apartments, 51

Pekin Theater, 14

petitioning, 30

Philadelphia, xiv, 159

Phillips High School, 90

place-marketing, 68–85, 99–100

Plan for Transformation (demolition plan), 139

planning charettes. See charettes

polarization, xv–xix, 53, 55, 133–38

policy wheel, 32, 167nn10&11

political preferences. See black electorate, political preferences of; preferences

post-civil rights era, xv–xix, xxx, 116, 156–57, 161–62

poverty, xxvi, 2, 35, 41, 46, 81, 91–92, 103

Prairie Avenue Courts housing project, xxvi

Prairie Shores housing project, 34, 36, 56

Preckwinkle, Toni, xxviii, 115, 125–27

preferences: black elites’, considered as communal, xiv, xxx, 133, 147, 156, 159, 

    163; defined, 136; diversity among, 111, 132–34, 149; group, considered as communal, 64–65, 

    102, 147–50, 156; group consciousness and, 137–38; racial authenticity and, 104; racial identity and, 135;

    See also black elites; middle class; racial advancement

preservation. See historic preservation

property values, 11, 37, 53, 150

protest and politics movement. See civil rights movement

Provident Hospital, 7, 13, 18, 52

public housing: Bronzeville Coalition and, 141–43; demolition of, 131–33, 139, 

    142–43, 160; future in question, 131–32; gentrification and, 160–62; homeownership and, 

    xiv, 110–12; lower-income class and, 112; Mid-South and, 59; mixed-income, xiv; negative effects of, xxvi, 

    56, 91–92; Ogden as resident of, 162; vs. other housing interests, 149; preservation of, 143; 

    racial authenticity and, 123–24; residents disempowered, 116; ward politics and, 113;

    See also Cabrini Green; Corneal A. Davis apartments; Dearborn Homes; Ida B. Wells; 

    Lake Meadows; Paul Stewart apartments; Prairie Avenue Courts; Prairie Shores; 

    Robert Taylor Homes; South Commons; Stateway Gardens

public transportation, 57, 88

PullmanFlorence, 7

Pullman Company, 18, 29, 167n12

Pythian Theater, 142

 

qualitative methodology, 157

Quinn Chapel, xii, 140–41

 

race-based politics, 163

race/class interaction theory, 156–59

race men, 16, 99

race-neutral policies, xix

race riots. See riots

racial advancement: black business development and, 16, 77, 146–47; black elites and, 21, 76–77, 

    156, 160; Bronzeville Coalition and, 95; Dawson’s non-commitment to, 32; gentrification and, 

    145–47, 150; middle class and, xvi; Mid-South and, 27, 156; racial identity and, xiv; Urban League 

    and, 30; voters’ preferences and, 134–35;

    See also racial authenticity; racial collectivism; racial solidarity

racial authenticity, xiv, xxviii, xxx, 102–6, 117–30, 160–61

racial collectivism, xxiv, 81, 102, 110–30, 141, 145–46 

    See also racial advancement; racial authenticity; racial identity; racial solidarity

racial conflict theory, xx

racial consciousness, 137

racial containment: black elites and, xxix; campaigns of, 10–11; client-patron politics and, 18; 

    community organizations countering, 62; Daley administration and, 44; developers and, 

    23, 33; Great Migration and, 37; housing construction and, 19; integration and, 18; 

    restrictive covenants and, 23–24; white elites and, 40

racial discrimination: black backlash against, 21; black business effected by, 17; black neighborhoods 

    devastated by, 2; Bronzeville Coalition and, 95; Depression-era activism against, 29–30; Douglas/Grand 

    Boulevard and, xii; in employment, 28, 49; gentrification and, 151; in housing, 34–35; legacy of, 156, 

    161; neighborhood resource development combating, 62; in schools, 43;

    See also intraracial conflict; racism; segregation

racial displacement: black political leaders and, 34–35; Chicago democratic machine and, 41; as client-patron 

    politics, 16; as common black concern, 149–50; developers and, 54; gentrification and, 35–36, 145, 151, 

    153; IIT and, 58; Mid-South and, 40; neighborhood development and, 53; place-marketing and, 68–69; racial 

    authenticity and, 104–7; reimagined Bronzeville history and, 152–53; renters and, 150–51; residents’ 

    anxieties over, 131–32; Restoring Bronzeville and, 107; Third Ward and, 34–35; white elites and, 56, 105–10, 149

racial dividend, 137

racial egalitarianism, xviii, 3, 7

racial formation theory, xxii

racial golden age, xv, 2, 37–38, 85, 88, 99, 157

racial group interests, 133–38

racial heritage tourism. See tourism

racial identity: analytical confusion surrounding, 165n3; black elites and, 132–33, 138; blacks’ definition of, 108; 

    Bronzeville Coalition and, 68–69; common history as basis of, xiii, xxx; conceptual advances and, 157; 

    conceptualization/measurement of, 165n2; construction of, 82–83, 162–63; developers and, 

    108; group consciousness and, 137; historical preservation and, 92–93; individual identity and, xxi; Jim Crow 

    as component of, xiii–xv, xxi, xxiv, 41, 65; Jim Crow nostalgia and, 155–63; linked-fate, xxi, 132, 

    153; lower-income class and, 162; middle-class black identity and, 168 (chap.4)n3; neighborhood-based 

    social interactions and, 95; political legitimacy of, xiv–xv, xix, xxiv; political preferences and, 133–37; 

    political theories unified in, xx–xxi; preferences and, 135; racial authenticity and, xiv, 102–5; racial group interests and, 

    136, 168 (chap.5)n2; segregation and, xiii–xiv;

    See also racial collectivism; racial solidarity; racial authenticity

racial insiders, 110–17

racial mobility, 80–81, 121, 165n5

racial outsiders, 117–19

racial privilege, 137

racial solidarity, 2, 12, 78–80, 92–93, 116, 122; See also racial advancement; racial authenticity; racial collectivism; racial identity

racial tourism. See tourism, racial

racial violence, 11, 22, 72

racism: Anthony’s view of, xii; assumptions based on, 75; black elites and, xvi, 21; black success refuting, 16; 

    in Bridgeport, 72–73; civil rights movement and, 158; in the Daley administration, 42–45; Dawson, unchallenged by, 

    30–32; economic, 47–49, 75; historic preservation challenging, 51–53; housing and, 10; middle class and, 

    160; northern black resistance to, 16; political economy maintaining, 28; racial mobility and, 121; symbolic, 

    165n1; Thompson administration and, 166n5; whites, effects on, 165n1;

    See also intraracial conflict; racial discrimination; segregation

radicalism, 8, 16, 29–30, 36–37, 159

Randall, Arnold, 152–53

Rawls, Lou, 114

real estate industry, 20–22, 37, 43, 54, 95

Recognition Panels, 89

reconstruction (Bronzeville). See community redevelopment

Reconstruction era, xvi

Redevelopment and Relocation Acts (1947), 34

redlining, 48–49, 50, 118

Regal Theater, xi, 141

reinventing history. See Bronzeville history reimagined

reinvestment, 34–35, 56, 73

relief. See social welfare agencies

relocation. See racial displacement

renters: among Mid-South Planning Group, 59; demolition and, 140; discrimination against, 11; 

    exploitation of, 13, 20; gentrification and, 145; vs. other housing interests, 149; projects designed

    for, 51; racial authenticity and, 106; racial displacement and, 150–51

Republican Party: allegiances shifting from, 26–27, 31; black candidates and, 15–16; black elites and, 

    5–6; black influence in, challenged, 27; black partisanship for, 135; blacks’ entry into, 18–19; 

    client-patron politics in, 15; Communist Party and, 29; DePriest and, 167n14; white control of, 18–1;

    See also Democratic Party; machine politics

Republican Party machine, 15–16, 18–19, 32; See also machine politics

residential authenticity, 117–22, 131–32

residential folk historians, 85–86

residential mobility, 80–81, 121, 165n5

residents’ community participation, 58–60, 100–102, 105–13, 131–32, 138–39, 141

resource distribution, 40–41

 

Restoring Bronzeville (land-use plan): black business development/ownership and, 94; black community heritage, vision of, 

    90; Blue Ribbon Committee and, 67–68; Bronzeville spirit and, 92–93; common racial history and, 148; employment 

    opportunities and, 107; mixed-income housing and, 139; origins of, xxiii, 39, 60–61, 73; place-marketing strategy and, 

    70; racial displacement and, 107; racial golden age portrayed by, 99; residential preferences and, 100–102; support for, 99, 109;

    See also Black Metropolis Historic District; community redevelopment; Mid-South; tourism

restrictive covenants, 23, 33, 166n6

revanchism, 105

revitalization. See community redevelopment

rezoning, 94

riots, 21, 44

rise and fall narrative, 2–3, 36–38, 81

Robert Taylor Homes housing project, xxvi, 35, 54, 139, 143, 152

Rochester, Nell, 100

Rodkin, Dennis: “The New South Side”, 152

Rush, Bobby, 52, 109

 

sanitizing history. See Bronzeville history reimagined

Savoy Theater, xi

Scottsboro Committee of Chicago, 28

Second Ward: aldermanic seats unavailable to blacks in, 7; black alderman elected in, 15–16; black residents of, underserved, 19; 

    Bronzeville Coalition and, 113–14; Dawson and, 31, 129; Douglas/Grand Boulevard and, 15, 45; electoral base of, threatened, 

    113; Haithcock and, 115, 131; political power lost in, 26–27; residents’ meeting in (1997), 131; Rush and, 52; Wright and, 19; 

    See also black electorate; black political leaders; black wards; Third Ward

Section 8 housing vouchers, 51

segregation: accommodationism and, 23–24, 32; benefits of, 1–2; black elites and, 11, 19–20, 23–24, 

    37; black expansion intensifying, 10; Bronzeville Coalition and, 95; Chicago, entrenched in, 37, 72–73; 

    Chicago Riot Commission and, 22; cultural values in, xv; developers and, 22; early black challenges to, 

    8, 11; in Early Migration period and, 12, 75; in housing, 15, 21–23, 40–44, 95; Jim Crow nostalgia and, 158; 

    minimizing, 152; organizations challenging, 27; racial identity and, xiii–xiv; removal of, 133; in schools, 11, 

    40–41; self-help strategies and, 21; social cohesion during era of, 79; voluntary, 12, 21–24; white elites and, 21–22;

    See also intraracial conflict; racial discrimination; racism

self-help politics, 8–24, 26–30, 36–38

self-segregation. See segregation, voluntary

separatism, 7, 14, 158

Silk, Portia, 72–74, 84, 100, 150

Simpson, William, 1–2, 37

Sixty-third Street, 93, 152

slavery, xii, 140

slums, 20, 34, 99–100

Sneed, Michael, 27

social adjustment policies, 30

social cohesion tradition, xix–xx

social welfare agencies: Black Belt development organizations and, 64; black population increase and, 

    26; Centers for New Horizons and, 61; employment opportunities and, 17, 50; group interests and, 

    135; gutting of, 161; Indigenous Families and, 150–51; limits of, 17; lower-income class and, 64; 

    Urban League and, 12, 30

South (southern United States), 2, 8–9, 17, 75, 96

South Commons housing project, 36, 56

Southern Christian Leadership Conference, 43

South Parkway, 77

South Shore Cultural Center, 91

South Side Development Corporation, 106

South Side Planning Board, 34, 35–36, 49

South Side Soldiers’ and Sailor’s Club, 12

South Society Planning Board, 80

South Street Journal, 76, 91

"Spend Your Money Where You Can Work" (political campaign), 27, 29

State Street: Binga and, 20; black occupancy near, 4; demolition and, 151; 

    as Douglas/Grand Boulevard business district, xi, 14, 76; entertainment venues on, 

    78; institutions on, 85; police headquarters and, 109; public transportation, 57

Stateway Gardens housing project, xxvi, 35, 54, 64, 88, 139, 143, 152

Stevens, Zeke, 109–10

Stevenson, Angela, 91–92

storytelling. See community folklore; residential folk historians

stratification, xvi, xx, 36, 53, 64, 115–16, 134–35; See also polarization

“Street in Bronzeville, A” (Brooks), 84

St. Thomas Episcopal Church, 138

Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee, 43

suburbanization, 33, 152

Sullivan, Louis, 51, 54

Summit Agreement, 43

Supreme Life Building, 61, 77, 139

Supreme Life Insurance Company, 14

 

tax increment financing (TIF) strategies, 105–6, 125

Taylor, Loretta, 91

tenure, 118–20, 124, 127–28

Third Ward: aldermanic seats unavailable to blacks in, 7; black alderman elected in, 15–16; 

    black Democratic organization in, 27; black residents underserved, 19; Bronzeville Coalition and, 

    113–14; Dawson and, 31; Douglas/Grand Boulevard and, 15, 45; electoral base threatened, 113; 

    political power lost in, 26–27; racial displacement and, 34–35; Tillman and, 114;

    See also black electorate; black political leaders; black wards; Second Ward

Thirty-fifth Street: Armstrong and, 85; black occupancy near, 4; Bronzeville boundaries and, 

    69; Bronzeville Gateway and, 109; entertainment venues and, xi; historic preservation and, 53; 

    monuments on, 77; public transportation and, 57; restrictive covenants and, 24; revitalization of, 51–52; 

    Walk of Fame and, 88–89

Thirty-first Street, 14, 51–52, 68, 76

Thirty-fourth Street, 141

Thirty-ninth Street, 68, 76

Thirty-second Street, 54

Thomas, Clarence, 104

Thompson, William Hale, 26, 166n5

TIF (tax increment financing) strategies, 105–6, 125

Tillman, Dorothy, 114–15, 125–26

tourism: heritage, 39, 61–62, 65, 70–75, 100, 159; Jim Crow nostalgia and, 158; Lucas and, 61–62; 

    racial, xiv, xxiii–xxiv, 70–71, 81–82, 103; urban renewal and, 68–69;

    See also Black Metropolis Historic District; community redevelopment; Mid-South 

    Planning and Development Commission (Mid-South); Restoring Bronzeville; tourism

Travis, Dempsey J., 75, 90

Truman, Harry S., 31

Twenty-fifth Street, 89

Twenty-fourth Street, xii, 140, 141

Twenty-second Street, xi

Twenty-sixth Place, 89

Twenty-sixth Street, xxv

 

Underground Railroad, xii, 3, 140

unemployment, xxvi, 48, 166n8

upper-income class: black business development and, 147; black business development/ownership, 168 

    (chap.3)n1; demolition and, 139–40; gentrification and, 151; NAACP and, 29; vs. other class strata, xvii,     

    112–13, 139–40; privileged by Mid-South, 156; See also black elites; lower-income class; middle class

Urban Development Action Grants, 58

urban jungle, 81

Urban League (Chicago Urban League), 12, 18, 29–30, 35, 62, 167n13

urban pioneers, 119, 150

urban renewal, xxvi, 32–36, 48–49, 50, 56, 68, 79–80, 167n16

use value, 146

U.S. Supreme Court, 33, 104

 

Vargas, Aaron, 21, 63

vice/vice organizations, 14–15, 19, 27, 31, 37, 166n4

Vincennes Avenue, 53

violence against blacks. See racial violence

vote/voting. See black electorate; black political leaders

Voting Rights Act (1965), xvii

 

Wabash Street YMCA, 18, 138

Walk of Fame, 89

War on Poverty, xvii, 167–68n5

Washington, Booker T., 11

Washington, Dinah, 85

Washington, Harold, 48, 51–52, 62, 126

Washington Park, 52

Washington Park Court, 53

welfare. See social welfare agencies

welfare-to-work program, 150

Wells, Ida B. See Barnett, Ida B. Wells; Ida B. Wells housing project

Wendell Campbell Associates, 60

West Side (Chicago), 54

Whitaker, Charles: “The New South Side”, 152

white backlash, xix

white electorate, 6, 42

white elites: black electorate and, 45; black elites class identity and, 40–41; black elites communities 

    controlled by, 77–78; black elites’ dependency on, 3–8, 12, 18; black interests constrained by, 

    xvii, xxv, 3–5, 40; businesses owned by, in black communities, 17; community redevelopment and, 107–8; 

    as Douglas/Grand Boulevard residents, 56; exploitation by, 19–21; financiers among, 30; housing shortage and, 

    21–23; migrant aid agencies and, 18; racial containment and, 40; racial displacement and, 56, 105–10, 149; 

    segregation and, 21–22; services owned by, in black communities, 17, 118; Urban League and, 12

white flight, 33, 152

white populations in black communities, xxiv, 1–2, 17–18, 33, 37, 105–10

White Sox Park, 89

white urban pioneers, 153

Wilk, Deborah: “The New South Side”, 152

Williams, Avery, 144–45

Williams, Byron, 79

Williams, Daniel Hale, 7, 13

Wilson, William Julius: The Declining Significance of Race, xx

women’s clubs, 13

Woodlawn (Illinois), 10, 58, 123

Woodlawn Organization, 47, 58

working class, xvii, 9, 21, 50, 56, 145, 163

World War I, 9–10, 25, 140, 152

World War II, xxvi, 33

Wright, Edward H., 15–16, 19

Wright, Frank Lloyd, 51

 

Yates, Richard, 6

“Young Artists View Today’s Bronzeville” (exhibit), 91